What is the main reason for acne?

Acne is an extremely prevalent skin ailment that manifests mostly as pimples on the face, forehead, chest, shoulders, and upper back.Genetics, fluctuating hormone levels, stress, high humidity, including the use of oily or greasy personal care products are some of the factors.Acne affects adolescents most frequently, but can develop at any age.

What exactly is called as acne?

It begins when oily secretions from the skin’s sebaceous glands (oil glands) clog the hair follicles’ small apertures (plugged pores).If the perforations are large, the clogs assume the appearance of blackheads, which are little, flat, dark-centered patches.

If the apertures remain small, the clogs will appear as whiteheads, which are little, flesh-colored lumps.Both forms of clogged pores can result in the development of swollen, sensitive inflammations or acne, as well as deeper lumps or nodules.

Nodules linked with extreme forms of acne (cystic acne) are hard, inflammatory, and sometimes infectious swellings beneath the skin’s surface.In spite of the fact that acne is mostly a problem of adolescents, roughly 20% of occurrences develop in adults.

Acne often begins between the ages of 10 and 13 and tends to be more severe in individuals with oily skin.Acne in adolescents often lasts between five and ten years, typically disappearing in early adulthood.It affects both sexes, however adolescent boys have the most serious instances.In their 30s and beyond, women are much more likely than men to develop mild to moderate forms.

The face is the most typical location for acne lesions, although they can also appear on the neck, chest, back, shoulders, and forearms.Acne is not caused by an unhealthy diet, inadequate cleanliness, or an unrestrained sex desire, contrary to common assumption.

Hereditary factors and hormones are behind the majority of acne cases.Giving up chocolate or wiping your face ten times a day will not alter your susceptibility to this unattractive, occasionally painful, and frequently unpleasant skin condition.

What can cause acne?

The reason of acne remains a mystery.Although stress can exacerbate acne, it is not the cause.


Increased hormone production in adolescents is the root cause of acne.Both boys and girls create elevated levels of androgens, the male sex hormones that include testosterone, during puberty.Testosterone signals the oil-producing glands of the skin to create more sebum.


Sebum in excess blocks hair follicle openings, notably on the face, neck, chest, and back.In these obstructed follicles, bacteria thrive.This causes the formation of blackheads or whiteheads, sometimes known as “comedones,” on the surface of the skin.

Occasionally, the follicular wall will rupture under the pressure of this buildup.Once this occurs, sebum spills into neighbouring tissues and creates pustules or papules; this condition is known as inflammatory acne.Larger, sensitive pustules usually called nodules.

Depending on the pill type, oral contraceptives might cause acne in some women while suppressing it in others.Some injectable contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUD) may also result in acne.Some bodybuilders and other sportsmen who use steroids can also cause significant breakouts.

Acne has numerous subtypes

  • Acne neonatorum and acne infantum affect newborns and infants, typically boys,

A pimple-like rash typically occurs on the face and clears up within a few weeks with no permanent effects.However, acne infantum may be more persistent, severe, and scarring.

Those who fled their adolescence relatively acne-free may develop persistent adult-onset acne as they age.Despite the typical increase in androgen levels during adolescence, some researchers estimate that acne outbreaks have more to do with a person’s skin’s response to an increase in sebum production or acne-causing bacteria than with androgen levels.

  • Propionibacterium acnes is naturally present in healthy hair follicles.If an excessive number of them develop in clogged follicles, they may emit enzymes which degrade sebum and cause irritation.Some individuals are simply greater susceptible to this reaction than others.Sebum levels that may result in a few zits in one individual may create extensive breakouts or even severe cystic acne in the other.

Several studies indicate that hereditary factors may enhance the risk.

Additional causes include:

  • Some drugs containing androgen and lithium greasy cosmetics.
  • hormonal alterations
  • psychological strain
  • menstruation

How many types of acne are there ?

Acne could manifest in numerous ways.They consist of:

  • Blackheads: are open skin lumps that become clogged with over production of oil and dead skin.

The black spots appear as though dirt has accumulated in a bump, but they are actually the result of an uneven light impression off the obstructed follicle.

  • Whiteheads: are blemishes that are sealed due to oil and dead skin.
  • Papules :are little, red or pink, inflammatory pimples.
  • Pustules: pus -filled pimples.They resemble whiteheads encircled by red circles.

Scarring might result from picking or scratching them.This kind of acne (pityrosporum folliculitis) is caused by an overgrowth of yeast in the hair follicles.

They can develop itching and inflammation.

  • Nodules :are solid, deep-seated acne lesions.They are substantial and unpleasant.
  • Cysts are pus-filled zits. These can lead to scarring.

All of these types of acne might negatively impact one’s self-esteem.

It is advisable to consult your healthcare professional as soon as possible so they can assist you in determining the best medication alternative(s) for oneself.

Can specific foods cause acne?

The majority of acne is caused by fluctuation of the hormone levels in the body.

There exists data that skim milk, whey protein, and high-sugar diets may trigger acne, however this remains questionable.

Eating a balanced, nutrient-dense diet consisting of an abundance of fresh fruits and vegetables, particularly those high in vitamin C and beta carotene, aids to reduce inflammation.

There is also research to suggest fish is beneficial.

How is acne identified?

During a skin inspection, your healthcare professional can diagnose acne.They may also inquire about your level of stress and your family history of acne, both of which are major risk factor.

Teenage girls and women may be questioned about their menstrual cycles, as there is a correlation between acne and menstrual periods.

In certain cases, unusual, severe acne outbreaks in older adults may indicate the presence of another underlying illness requiring medical concern.

How serious may acne become?

Dermatologists rate acne severity as follows:

Grade1: Whiteheads and blackheads predominate, with a lesser number of papules and pustules.

Multiple papules and pustules, predominantly on the face, make up Acne of Grade 2 severity.

Grade 3 (moderately severe or nodulocystic acne) is characterised by multiple papules and pustules, in addition to occasionally inflammatory nodules.

Additionally, your back and chest may be impacted.

Grade 4 (severe nodulocystic acne) is characterised by the presence of multiple big, painful, and irritated pustules and nodules.

What Treatments are used to reduce or remove acne?

Ask your doctor about prescription-strength drugs if without-the-prescription acne treatments have not been effective after many weeks of use.

A skin specialist can assist with:

  • Putting a check to your acne
  • Prevent blemishes or spots and other skin damage.
  • Make marks of the acne less obvious

Acne treatments reduce oil formation and inflammation or treat bacterial infection.By using  the majority of prescription acne medications, it may take four to eight weeks to notice effects.generally   months or even years are required  for acne to entirely clear up.

Your doctor will propose a treatment plan based on the age, type and severity of your acne, and your commitment level.

For instance, you may be required to clean and dress to the damaged area twice daily for fewer weeks.Oral meds and topical treatments are frequently used in conjunction with one another. In view of the potential of side effects, treatment choices for pregnant women are restricted.

Discuss the hazards and advantages of the drugs and any therapies you are considering with your doctor.And visit your dermatologist every three to six months till your skin becomes better.

Local treatments available

The most commonly prescribed topical acne treatments can be as follows:

Medicines that contain specifically retinoids

For mild acne, retinoic acid or tretinoin-containing medications are frequently effective.There are creams, gels, and lotions available.Tretinoin (Avita, Retin-A, and others), adapalene (Differin), and tazarotene are examples (Tazorac, Avage, others).This drug is applied in the evening, initially thrice a week to  daily application when the skin adjusts.It prevents hair follicles from clogging.Avoid applying tretinoin and benzoyl peroxide at the same time.

Retinoids applied topically increase UV sensitivity. Additionally, they can be source to dry skin and redness, particularly in individuals with darker skin.

Adapalene may be preffered to be tolerated.

These carry on  by eliminating extra skin germs and lowering inflammation and redness.

During the initial months of usage, you can apply an antibiotic in the daytime and a retinoid in the night .Antibiotics are frequently used with benzoyl peroxide to decrease the probability of antibiotic resistance.

Clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide (Benzaclin, Duac, and others) and erythromycin with benzoyl peroxide are examples (Benzamycin).Antibiotics used topically alone are not advised.

Azelaic acid with salicylic acid

Yeast produces azelaic acid as a naturally developing  acid.It is antimicrobial in nature. A  cream or gel containing 20 percent azelaic acid appears to be as potent as many traditional acne treatments if  applied twice daily.

Azelaic acid (Azelex, Finacea) is available by prescription throughout pregnancy and breastfeeding. It can also be used to treat the discolouration caused by certain types of acne.

Redness and slight irritability of the skin are among the side effects.Both wash-off and leave-on treatments containing salicylic acid may aid in preventing clogged hair follicles.

Few studies demonstrate its effectiveness. The adverse effects include discolouration and mild irritation of the skin.

Dapsone (Aczone)

5% gel is advised twice daily for inflammatory acne, specifically  in acne-prone women.  Among the adverse effects are redness and dryness.

There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, sulphur, nicotinamide, resorcinol, sulfacetamide sodium, or aluminium chloride as topical acne therapies.

Oral pharmaceuticals

For not-extreme to severe acne, oral antibiotics may be required to decrease bacteria.

Typically, a tetracycline (minocycline, doxycycline) or a macrolide is the initial treatment alternative for acne (erythromycin, azithromycin).

Macrolides may be an option for those who cannot take tetracyclines, such as pregnant women and children younger than eight years of age.

For the prevention of antibiotic resistance, oral antibiotics need to be  taken for the little duration practicable.

In addition, they need to be dosed with other medications, like benzoyl peroxide, to lessen the likelihood of antibiotic resistance.Rarely do antibiotics prescribed to heal acne cause severe adverse effects.

These medications do enhance sun sensitivity.

Combination oral contraceptive medications

The FDA has approved four combination oral contraceptives for acne treatment for women who further choose for the purpose of  contraception. combinations of progestin and oestrogen (Ortho Tri-Cyclen 21, Yaz, others) are present in these medicines.

This treatment may not be effective for several months, therefore combining it with other acne drugs for the first few weeks may be beneficial.

Weight gain, breast discomfort, and nausea are common adverse effects of combination oral contraceptives.

Additionally, these medicines are associated with a higher chances  of cardiovascular complications, breast cancer, and cervical cancer.

Anti-androgen factors

If oral antibiotics are ineffective, spironolactone (Aldactone) might be prescribed for women and adolescent girls.

It functions by inhibiting the impact of androgen hormones on oil-secreting  glands.

Among the potential adverse effects are breast discomfort and unpleasant menstruation.

Isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, etc.) is a vitamin A derivative

Individuals whose medium level  or severe acne has not responded to prior treatments may be administered this medication.Isotretinoin’s potential adverse effects comprise of  inflammatory bowel illness, depression, and serious birth abnormalities.

All patients who are subjected to the  isotretinoin should  participate in a risk management programme approved by the FDA.In addition, patients will need to visit their physicians frequently to check any  adverse effects.


Some individuals may benefit from the following therapy, each of the therapies or along side with the medicine usage.

Light treatment

Numerous light-based therapies have been tested with varying degrees of success.

Most conditions will require repeated doctor’s office visits.

Additional research is required to find the optimal method, light source, and dosage.

Chemical peel

This method involves many treatments of a chemical solution, such as salicylic acid, glycolic acid, or retinoic acid.This is used to treat mild acne.

It may  make the skin better-looking, but the effect is not permanent and subsequent treatments are typically necessary.

Drainage and removal

Your physician might adopt special instruments to eliminate whiteheads and blackheads (comedos) or cysts that have not responded to topical treatments.

This method enhances the skin appearance briefly, but it may also be source for scarring.

Steroid administration

Injecting a steroid medication into nodulocystic and cystic lesions is a treatment option. This treatment has led to a speedy recovery and a reduction in pain. The treated area may experience skin disintegration and discolouration as a side effect.

Caring for children

In the majority of acne drug studies, participants were at least 12 years old.  younger children are also developing acne progressively. The FDA has approved additional topical products for use on children. Dermatologists studies  show that topical benzoyl peroxide, adapalene, and tretinoin are efficacious and do not raise the exposure of side effects in pre-adolescent children. If your child suffers from acne, you may want to contact a paediatric dermatologist.

Inquire about medicines to abstain in children, acceptable doses, drug interactions, adverse effects, and how therapy may impact the growth and development of a child.

How to prevent  acne?

During regular hormonal shifts, it is tough, if not impossible, to prevent acne.

However, the following can be helpful:

  • Every day, wash your lukewarm water along with gentle facial cleanser.
  • Utilize moisturiser frequently.
  • You do not have to quit application of cosmetics,instead you should strive to use “non-comedogenic” products and remove your makeup each night.
  • Avoid touching your face constantly.

How to manage acne in daily basis?

Here are some ideas for caring for acne-prone or acne-affected skin.

  • No more than twice a day, wash your face with warm water and acne-specific mild soap.
  • Do not clean the skin or pop the zits, since doing so may push the infection deeper, resulting in increased blockage, swelling, and redness
  • Avoid popping zits, as this increases the likelihood of scarring.
  • An expert can cure a zit that must be removed immediately for aesthetic reasons
  • Avoid contact with the face.
  • While conversing, keep the phone away from the face, as it is likely to retain sebum and skin residue
  • Frequent hand washing is necessary, particularly prior applying lotions, creams, or makeup
  • Frequently clean eyeglasses, as they gather sebum and skin residue.
  • If you have acne on your back, shoulders, or chest, try wearing loose clothing to allow your skin to air.
  • If you must wear tight clothing, such as headbands, caps, and scarves, wash them frequently.
  • Choose cosmetics for sensitive skin and prevent items containing oil.
  • Wipe makeup before sleeping.
  • When shaving, use an electric razor or sharp safety razors.
  • Warm soapy water should be used to soften the skin and beard prior to applying shaving cream
  • Maintain clean hair, as it accumulates sebum and skin residue.
  • Avoid hair products that are greasy, such as those containing cocoa butter.
  • Avoid excessive sun exposure, as it might increase sebum production.
  • Several acne drugs increase sunburn risk.
  • Anxiety and stress can boost cortisol and adrenaline levels, which can aggravate acne.
  • To reduce sweating in hot and humid areas, maintain a cool and dry environment.

Acne is a prevalent issue. It can cause extreme shame, but it is treatable and in many cases helpful.