As the healthcare industry continues to evolve with medical advances, the education of future medical professionals remains a key component in the provision of quality healthcare. Current data and discussions around medical education are critical for the development and future planning of health services. Among the various specialities in medicine, cardiac and thoracic (cardiothoracic) surgery holds substantial importance due to the complexity and intricacies involved in the procedures. However, the extent to which cardiothoracic surgery is being taught in UK medical schools has become a topic of concern for both educational institutions and healthcare providers. This article investigates the recent findings regarding the presence of cardiothoracic surgery education within the United Kingdom’s undergraduate medical curriculum.

According to data, which culminated in a publication within “The Ulster Medical Journal” (DOI: PMC6500404) by Jeremy J Chan, a Foundation Year 2 doctor in the Wales Deanery, and Pushpinder Sidhu, a Consultant Cardiothoracic Surgeon at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, the coverage of cardiothoracic surgery in the UK medical schools’ curriculum appears to be lacking. Their letter, titled “How much cardiothoracic surgery is taught in UK medical schools?”, raises significant questions about the preparedness of medical graduates in the UK to enter this complex surgical field.

The study by Chan and Sidhu (2019) analyzed the extent to which medical schools across the UK include cardiothoracic surgery in their curriculum. They argue that with the growing demand for cardiothoracic surgeons due to the rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases, it is crucial to ensure that medical education is keeping up with the requirements of the healthcare sector. The reported underrepresentation of cardiothoracic surgery within undergraduate education can potentially impact the preparedness of newly qualified doctors to handle cases that require such surgical interventions.

The Royal College of Surgeons, in their “National undergraduate curriculum in surgery” published in 2015, emphasized the need for all medical students to have a foundational understanding of surgery as a whole, including specific surgical fields like cardiothoracic surgery. However, the concern remains whether this curriculum is being effectively implemented across medical schools in the UK.

Furthermore, the General Medical Council’s report on “The state of medical education and practice in the UK” (2018) reflected on the broader implications of medical training programmes and how they align with the UK’s healthcare demands. The guidance by the GMC assures the public that all doctors should acquire a minimum level of surgical exposure, yet does not stipulate the depth of training specific to cardiothoracic surgery.

Additionally, the UK Foundation Programme’s “2018 recruitment stats and facts report” for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales indicated an ongoing need to revise educational strategies to better equip medical students. This is particularly relevant as students transition from medical schools to Foundation Programme placements, where they must be ready to apply their knowledge to practical, real-world scenarios, including those within the realm of cardiothoracic surgery.

Despite the recognized importance of cardiothoracic surgery education, Chan and Sidhu’s work points to a gap between what is recommended by academic and professional bodies and what is currently practiced in medical schools. Questions arise as to whether sufficient time and resources are being allocated to this speciality within the curriculum and whether students are receiving appropriate exposure to cardiothoracic cases throughout their training.

To address these concerns, medical schools may need to consider revamping their curricula to include more structured and comprehensive modules on cardiothoracic surgery. This could involve increasing access to simulated surgeries, workshops, clinical rotations in cardiothoracic departments, and mentorship opportunities with experienced surgeons. Collaboration between educational institutions and healthcare providers could play a pivotal role in enhancing the exposure to cardiothoracic surgery for students.

The limitations of time and resource allocation in an already crowded medical curriculum pose significant challenges to the inclusion of additional surgical education. However, given the importance of the cardiothoracic surgery field, it is imperative that innovative solutions are found to ensure that learning in this area is not compromised.

In considering the future of cardiothoracic surgery education in the UK, several recommendations can be posited:

1. Development of national standards for cardiothoracic surgery teaching within undergraduate medical education, ensuring consistency and quality across all medical schools.
2. Greater integration of cardiothoracic surgery training into clinical placements, allowing students to observe and assist in real-life surgical procedures.
3. Investment in simulation-based education, providing medical students with hands-on experience in a controlled environment.
4. Encouragement of research opportunities and special study modules focused on cardiothoracic surgery to stimulate interest and knowledge in the field.
5. Creation of postgraduate pathways that build directly on undergraduate experiences in cardiothoracic surgery, ensuring a smooth transition for those intending to specialize in the field.

As the data from academia suggest, addressing the deficits in cardiothoracic surgery education requires a multifaceted approach that combines curricular innovation, resource allocation, clinical exposure, and research opportunities.

In summary, while cardiothoracic surgery remains a vital component of surgical practice, its current stature within the UK medical curriculum necessitates scrutiny and enhancement. The establishment of dedicated programs and paths for interested medical students could play a critical role in fostering the next generation of cardiothoracic surgeons.

After reviewing the evidence put forward by Chan and Sidhu, the call to action is clear: concerted efforts must be made by educational authorities, medical schools, and governing healthcare bodies to ensure cardiothoracic surgery education is not only present but robust within the UK medical curriculum. As the healthcare landscape adjusts to meet the needs of a growing population with complex medical requirements, so too must the training of those charged with their care evolve. It is a matter of urgency for medical education to reflect this need in its teaching of cardiothoracic surgery.


1. Cardiothoracic Surgery Education
2. UK Medical Curriculum
3. Medical School Surgical Training
4. Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures Education
5. Undergraduate Medical Teaching


1. Chan, Jeremy J., and Pushpinder Sidhu. “How Much Cardiothoracic Surgery Is Taught in UK Medical Schools?” The Ulster Medical Journal, vol. 88, no. 2, May 2019, p. 128.
2. Royal College of Surgeons. “National undergraduate curriculum in surgery.” London: Royal College of Surgeons; 2015.
3. General Medical Council. “The state of medical education and practice in the UK.” London: General Medical Council; 2018.
4. UK Foundation Programme. “2018 Recruitment Stats and Facts Report; England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales.” London: UK Foundation Programme; 2018.