Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (genus Schistosoma), has long plagued tropical regions, affecting millions of people with chronic illness. Nonetheless, the global health community has witnessed significant strides towards the disease’s elimination, particularly in regions like China. But as research by Bergquist and Gray highlights (DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020076), this trek is far from over. In this article, we delve into the complexities surrounding schistosomiasis elimination efforts, calling attention to the innovative work being done while recognizing the myriad challenges that remain.


Schistosomiasis remains a global burden, with the World Health Organization estimating approximately 240 million people require preventive treatment annually. The disease can result in severe complications, including stunted growth in children, decreased fertility, and increased susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and it has long been endemic in several world regions. Vos et al. (2012) provide a systematic analysis indicating the considerable disability that these parasitic infections continue to impose (DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2).

Recent Progress

China is often cited as a success story in schistosomiasis control. Through a multi-pronged approach including snail control, improved sanitation, health education, and mass drug administration programs, China has dramatically reduced the prevalence of the disease. Similarly, other regions such as parts of Africa and South America have made progress through sustained control efforts.

Challenges and Research Gaps

Despite progress, several significant obstacles impede the final steps toward elimination. Underestimation of disease prevalence due to limited use of high-sensitivity diagnostic techniques is a critical problem. Conventional diagnostic methods like the Kato-Katz technique are insufficient for detecting low-intensity infections common in areas approaching elimination.

High-sensitivity diagnostic tools, such as a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen urine assay and real-time PCR detection techniques, have been shown to have higher sensitivity and specificity. These tools are pivotal in accurately gauging infection levels, informing control strategies, and tailoring treatment approaches to local disease dynamics, as demonstrated by multiple studies (Colley et al., 2013, DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0639; He et al., 2018, DOI: 10.1186/s40249-018-0390-y).

Another challenge mentioned is the insufficiency of drug supplies to treat everyone affected and the sustainability of drug efficacy. Praziquantel is the primary treatment for schistosomiasis, but the availability of this drug is not consistent across endemic areas, and resistance concerns exist. The development of a schistosomiasis vaccine is ongoing and presents a potential long-term solution to controlling and eventually eliminating the disease (Miriam Tendler et al., 2018 DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed3040121).

In addition to health interventions, socioeconomic barriers and lack of infrastructure hinder the implementation of comprehensive control measures in many endemic regions. Politics, funding, and local commitment significantly affect the feasibility of schistosomiasis elimination programs.

Future Prospects

To move from control to elimination, an integrated approach is vital. It includes enhancing vector control strategies, advancing diagnostic tools, securing consistent drug supplies, improving water and sanitation, and fostering strong community-based initiatives (Bergquist and Gray, DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020076).

The development of new technologies, such as geospatial surveillance systems, may also play a role in eliminating schistosomiasis. These systems enable the mapping of disease prevalence and transmission dynamics, facilitating targeted intervention strategies (Malone et al., 2019, DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4010015).

Moreover, the question of when to declare a country free of schistosomiasis remains complex. It demands reliable tools and criteria to assess the interruption of transmission convincingly — a task that encompasses both the human definitive hosts and the snail intermediate hosts involved in the disease’s life cycle.

By combining existing knowledge with emerging technologies and a community-engaged approach, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination becomes more attainable. This process, however, requires global cooperation, sustained funding, and, crucially, a commitment from endemic countries’ governments to prioritize schistosomiasis within their public health agendas.


The pursuit of schistosomiasis elimination is not merely a continuation on a trodden path but a determined march towards a world free from the disease’s burden. The coupling of scientific advancements with practical, on-the-ground strategies offers the most significant promise for achieving this goal. The rallying call now is for coordinated global action, investment in research and health systems, and a move towards a world where no individual’s potential is limited by schistosomiasis.


1. Bergquist, R., & Gray, D. J. (2019). Schistosomiasis elimination: Beginning of the end or a continued march on a trodden path. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 4(2), 76. DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed4020076
2. Colley, D. G., Binder, S., Campbell, C., et al. (2013). A five-country evaluation of a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen urine assay for the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88(3), 426–432. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0639
3. He, P., Gordon, C. A., Williams, G. M., et al. (2018). Real-time PCR diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum in low transmission areas of China. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 7, 8. DOI: 10.1186/s40249-018-0390-y
4. Vos, T., Flaxman, A. D., Naghavi, M., et al. (2012). Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet, 380(9859), 2163–2196. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2
5. Miriam Tendler, M., Almeida, M. S., Vilar, M. M., Pinto, P. M., Limaverde-Sousa, G. (2018). Current status of the Sm14/GLA-SE Schistosomiasis vaccine: Overcoming barriers and paradigms towards the first anti-parasitic human(itarian) vaccine. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(4), 121. DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed3040121


1. Schistosomiasis elimination
2. High-sensitivity diagnostics
3. Snail control strategies
4. Integrated disease control
5. Schistosomiasis vaccine development