In a groundbreaking study published in the `Clinical Nutrition ESPEN`, researchers from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences have shed light on the potential impact of vitamin D levels on mental health and circadian behaviors such as sleep and eating habits. The study titled “Night eating habits, sleep quality, and depression, are they associated with vitamin D status?” uncovers an inverse association between serum levels of vitamin D and incidences of night eating habits, depression, and poor sleep quality among female college students.

The Link between Vitamin D and Well-being

Vitamin D, although traditionally recognized for its crucial role in bone health, is now being increasingly linked to various aspects of physical and mental well-being. The study DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2023.11.020, authored by Azadeh A. Fallah, Hamid H. Abdolazimi, Malihe M. Karamizadeh, Gordon A. Ferns, Arash A. Mani, and Marzieh Akbarzadeh, suggests that vitamin D could play an effective role in influencing mental health and regulating eating and sleeping patterns.

Methodology of the Study

The cross-sectional study examined a group of 272 healthy female students with a median age range of 21 to 24 years from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, focusing on their serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Participants’ demographic and anthropometric data, sleep quality, and depression levels were documented. To investigate night eating habits, the researchers used a 3-day food record questionnaire. Sophisticated statistical methods such as Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression were employed to analyze the collected data, considering a P-value of <0.05 for indicating statistical significance.

Striking Results

The study uncovered that a staggering 82.3% of participants were identified as night eaters and were found to have a higher incidence of poor sleep quality as compared to non-night eaters. Intriguingly, with every 1 ng/ml increase in serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the likelihood of being a night eater decreased by 3%, augmented by a 5% reduction in depression odds and a 6% decrease in the odds of experiencing poor sleep quality.

Implications and the Need for Further Research

These findings illuminate the negative correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and night eating habits, poor sleep quality, and signs of depression. The study prompts readers to consider the importance of vitamin D in daily functioning and mental health and suggests a possible therapeutic role in treating sleep and mood disorders. Nevertheless, the authors emphasize the need for cohort and interventional studies to confirm these results.

A Call-to-Action: Monitoring Vitamin D Levels

The observed associations compel us to pay closer attention to vitamin D status, particularly among those experiencing disordered eating patterns, sleep dysregulation, or depressive symptoms. It’s a call-to-action for clinicians to consider vitamin D levels when treating these conditions.

No Competing Interests

The research team declared no competing interests, ensuring the objectivity and integrity of the study. The authors collectively hold venerable positions at the Nutrition Research Center, the School of Nutrition and Food Science, and the Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Accessibility and Citation

The full article can be accessed in the February 2024 edition of Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, with the citation available below for academic and professional reference.


1. Vitamin D depression
2. Night eating habits
3. Sleep quality study
4. Vitamin D nutrition research
5. Mental health and vitamin D


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