A recent study published in the Bratislavske Lekarske Listy (Bratisl Lek Listy) journal has shed light on the risk factors associated with cognitive impairment in the elderly population of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The study, which assessed a diverse group of 385 elderly participants, identifies critical lifestyle and socio-demographic indicators that could potentially help in preventive strategies against dementia and related cognitive declination.

Crucial Findings From the Study

The cross-sectional study focused on a vital subject matter, the cognitive health of the elderly, which is increasingly becoming a concern due to the aging global population. Through a structured questionnaire and cognitive tests, the researchers identified several key risk factors for cognitive impairment (CI) in the elderly.

Education Level: The study suggests that individuals with incomplete secondary education are at an almost fivefold increased risk (4.92 times) of developing cognitive impairment compared to those with higher education. Those with secondary education and secondary special education are at a 1.24 and 2.25 times higher risk, respectively.

Employment Status: According to the study, the absence of employment at the time of the survey increases the risk of CI by 2.24 times, relative to those who continue to work. Interestingly, being retired is associated with a lower risk (0.42 times) compared to working individuals.

Smoking Habits: The study associates smoking with a 2.51 times higher risk of developing CI when compared to non-smokers. A history of smoking was associated with a lower increased risk (0.86 times).

Alcohol Consumption: Individuals who consume alcohol are said to exhibit a 1.62 times increased risk of CI compared to non-drinkers. Those who drink occasionally (e.g., on holidays) seem to show a reduced risk (0.31 times).

The study underlines the understanding that while prevention methods for dementia are currently limited, influencing these identified risk factors could mitigate the risk of its development.

The Context of Cognitive Impairment in Kazakhstan

Cognitive impairment in the elderly can significantly compromise their quality of life, creating a considerable burden on public health systems, families, and caregivers. In Kazakhstan, like many countries, the elderly population is growing, necessitating research that targets the factors underpinning diseases such as dementia.

Implications for Public Health and Policy

This research carries profound implications for public health policy and prevention strategies in Kazakhstan. It apprises healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public of the modifiable risk factors that can be targets of intervention. Improvement in education, promotion of active retirement, anti-smoking policies, and regulation of alcohol consumption could form the foundations of a comprehensive strategy to prevent CI.

Critical Analysis and Future Scope

While the findings are valuable, cross-sectional studies inherently cannot establish causality. Longitudinal studies would be crucial in substantiating these associations over time. Also, considering the socio-demographic diversity of Kazakhstan, further research would be beneficial in understanding regional differences in risk factors.

Potential Limitations

The study’s limitations include its cross-sectional nature and the self-reported data from participants, which may be subject to recall bias. The sample size, though significant, may still not capture the entire spectrum of the elderly demographic in Kazakhstan.


1. Tukinova, A. A., Shalgumbayeva, G. G., & Mussabekova, Z. Z. (2024). Risk factors of cognitive impairment in elderly people in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Bratisl Lek Listy, 125(2), 113-116. DOI: 10.4149/BLL_2024_019


1. Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly
2. Risk Factors for Dementia
3. Elderly Care in Kazakhstan
4. Preventive Strategies for Cognitive Decline
5. Aging Population and Cognitive Health

In conclusion, this pioneering study presents critical insights into the risk factors of cognitive impairment among the elderly population in Kazakhstan. By addressing these risk factors, there is potential for improving the cognitive health and overall well-being of the aging demographic. The study is a call to action for stakeholders across various sectors, from healthcare to policymaking, to work collaboratively towards a future where the golden years of individuals are marked by mental acuity and quality of life, free from the shadows of cognitive impairment.

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