1. α-cobratoxin expression
2. Recombinant snake toxins
3. E. coli expression systems
4. K. phaffii toxin production
5. Biotechnological snake venom

In the quest to improve the biotechnological capture of snake venom toxins, a recent publication in Toxicon highlights a comparative study that scrutinizes the performance of two distinct biological expression systems: Escherichia coli and Komagataella phaffii (formerly known as Pichia pastoris). This groundbreaking research conducted by Damsbo et al. from the Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine at the Technical University of Denmark ventures into the realm of recombinant expression of α-cobratoxin, a notorious three-finger toxin (3FTx) derived from the venom of the monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) (DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2024.107613).


Three-finger toxins like α-cobratoxin have historically been harvested through the fractionation of whole venoms, a traditional method that ensures the functional integrity of these toxins but is often stymied by the arduous task of isolating pure isoforms. Such complexities arise due to the presence of a plethora of toxins within snake venoms, many of which share closely related physicochemical properties, making separation a formidable challenge.

The work of Damsbo et al. illuminates the path forward with recombinant expression – a sophisticated alternative that can bypass the limitations of traditional methods by producing these toxins in host organisms through genetic engineering. This not only presents an opportunity for acquiring pure substances but also offers a gateway to generating toxins that are otherwise scarce or even extinct due to the declining population of various snake species.

Study Overview

The Technical University of Denmark team tackled one of the key challenges in recombinant toxin production: the formation of the correct disulfide bonds. Disulfide bonds are critical for the proper structural and functional configuration of proteins, and in the context of snake venoms, these structural features are integral to their toxicity and their binding to receptors in the prey or victims.

For the expression of α-cobratoxin, three different systems were put head-to-head:

1. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells using the csCyDisCo plasmid
2. Escherichia coli SHuffle cells
3. Komagataella phaffii (K. phaffii)

The study meticulously analyzed each system’s efficacy in producing α-cobratoxin, offering insight that could reshape the domain of antivenom development and other toxin-related biotechnologies.


Remarkably, none of the expression systems achieved a perfect replication of α-cobratoxin as it is found in nature, in the venom isolated from Naja kaouthia. However, the authors discovered that K. phaffii showed promising attributes when expressing the recombinant toxin. In contrast to the E. coli systems, which are notable for their role in producing a wide range of recombinant proteins, K. phaffii appeared to offer advantages that might stem from its eukaryotic machinery and its subsequent ability to perform more complex post-translational modifications required by many snake venom toxins.

Technical University of Denmark’s Milestone Contribution

The researchers behind the study – Damsbo, Rimbault, Burlet, Vlamynck, Bisbo, Belfakir, Laustsen, and Rivera-de-Torre – acknowledge the importance of their results not just for the academic community interested in toxicology but also for the biopharmaceutical industry that relies on high-quality and highly pure substances for therapeutic applications. The partnership between the academic institution and VenomAid Diagnostics ApS emphasizes the translational nature of such research.

Future Directions

Building on this pioneering work, future research endeavors will certainly delve deeper into optimizing yeast expression systems like that of K. phaffii. The potential for higher yields, improved folding, and post-translational workings in yeast could unveil a new era where recombinant toxins are not only structurally and functionally akin to their venom-derived counterparts but also produced in a cleaner, more sustainable manner without relying on animal harvesting.

Challenges and Considerations

While this study has made significant strides, the authors do not shy away from admitting the complexities and challenges that remain. The intricacies of achieving proper folding and disulfide bond formation in heterologous expressions are an ongoing challenge. Furthermore, the scalability of these processes and the financial implications of moving from E. coli, a relatively cheap and well-understood host, to K. phaffii, a yeast with potentially higher production costs, will need thorough evaluation.

Implications for Antivenom Production

The development of recombinant α-cobratoxin can have a substantial impact on antivenom production. With a more reliable supply of pure toxin, researchers can better elucidate mechanisms of action and interactions with the immune system, leading to improved antivenoms that could be both more effective and less prone to causing adverse reactions in patients.

Community and Environmental Benefits

Beyond the scientific and medical ramifications, the adoption of recombinant technologies aligns with broader conservation efforts. By reducing the need to extract venom from snake populations, this biotechnological approach minimizes the environmental footprint of antivenom production and aids in preserving biodiversity.


The insightful study by Damsbo and colleagues represents a significant advancement in the realm of toxinology and biotechnology. As they refine and enhance the recombinant production of toxins like α-cobratoxin, the converging paths of science, medicine, and environmental conservation become increasingly apparent. The potential to revolutionize antivenom development and other medical interventions, while simultaneously honoring our commitment to ecological stewardship, is within reach.


Here is a list of references that complement the information provided in the news article:

1. Damsbo, A., Rimbault, C., Burlet, N. J., Vlamynck, A., Bisbo, I., Belfakir, S. B., Laustsen, A. H., & Rivera-de-Torre, E. (2024). A comparative study of the performance of E. coli and K. phaffii for expressing α-cobratoxin. Toxicon, 239, 107613. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2024.107613
2. Laustsen, A. H. (2020). Toxin on a chip: New analytical methods and devices for detecting venoms and toxins. Toxicon, 178, 44-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.02.007
3. Petras, D., Heiss, P., Süssmuth, R. D., & Calvete, J. J. (2015). Venom proteomics of Indonesian king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah: Integrating top-down and bottom-up approaches. Journal of Proteome Research, 14(6), 2539–2556. DOI: 10.1021/pr501355g
4. Rodrigues, R. S., Boldrini-França, J., Fonseca, F. P., de la Torre, P., Henrique-Silva, F., & Sanz, L., Calvete, J. J. (2019). Combined venomics, venom gland transcriptomics, bioactivities, and antivenomics of two Bothrops jararaca populations from geographic isolated regions within the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Journal of Proteomics, 191, 153-168. DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.02.016
5. Zhang, Y., Whyte, J. & Li, P. (2018). Optimizing eukaryotic cell hosts for protein production through systems biotechnology and metabolic engineering. Metabolic Engineering, 50, 173-183. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymben.2018.08.001