Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress. These “panic attacks” happen without a clear cause or warning and can create intense worry about when the next attack will happen. This can impact daily activities and overall quality of life. Some people might avoid places or situations to prevent these panic attacks, which can lead to another condition known as agoraphobia. Treatment options include psychological therapies and medications, and lifestyle changes can also help to manage symptoms. It’s always recommended for a person with such symptoms to seek professional help from a mental health provider.

Panic disorder

Causes of Panic disorder

Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks. These are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something terrible is going to happen. Here are some potential causes:

1. Genetics: Panic disorder tends to run in families, suggesting that inheritance plays a strong role in its development.

2. Biological factors: Some biological mechanisms, such as abnormalities in the brain or in the body’s stress-response system, can make an individual more prone to experiencing panic attacks.

3. Major life stressors: Significant life changes, such as getting married, having a child, getting a divorce, or losing a loved one, can act as triggers for the onset of panic disorder.

4. Personality: Certain personality traits such as neuroticism, or trait anxiety can increase the likelihood of developing a panic disorder.

5. Childhood physical or sexual abuse: Studies have shown higher incidence of panic disorder among individuals who were physically or sexually abused in their childhood.

6. Substance Abuse: Substance abuse (including the use of caffeine, alcohol, and illicit drugs) can also increase the risk of developing panic disorder.

Remember, these factors can increase the likelihood of developing panic disorder, but they do not guarantee it. Many people with these risk factors never experience panic attacks, and people who develop panic disorder can have none of these risk factors. It often varies from person to person.

Risk Factors of Panic disorder

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms. Several factors can increase the risk of developing this disorder, which includes:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of panic disorder have a higher likelihood of experiencing it themselves.

2. Stressful Life Events: Experiencing major life changes, traumatic events, or significant stress can trigger a panic disorder.

3. Female Gender: Women are about twice as likely as men to have panic disorder.

4. Physical Illness: Conditions such as hyperthyroidism or cardiac arrhythmias can cause symptoms of panic attacks and increase the risk of developing panic disorder.

5. Age: Panic disorder often starts in late adolescence or early adulthood, but not everyone who experiences panic attacks will develop panic disorder.

6. Substance Use: Alcohol, caffeine, and certain drugs can trigger panic attacks or worsen existing panic disorders.

7. Mental Health Conditions: Other disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, or certain phobias can heighten the risk of developing panic disorder.

8. Experiencing a major stressful or traumatic event such as being the victim of a violent crime may also trigger panic disorder.

It’s essential to consult with a healthcare provider when symptoms are present for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Remember, everyone experiences stress and processes it differently. If you, or someone you know is having panic attacks it is important to seek help from a healthcare professional.

Signs and Symptoms of Panic disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks. Here are the signs and symptoms:

1. Sudden and repeated attacks of intense fear that may last for several minutes or longer. Some people may experience a panic attack only once or twice in their life, while others may have them frequently.

2. Feeling out of control during the panic attacks.

3. Physical symptoms during an attack can include rapid heart rate, sweating, trembling or shaking, feeling hot or a cold chill, shortness of breath or choking sensation, chest pain, nausea or stomach pains, feeling dizzy or lightheaded, and numbness or tingling sensation.

4. Fear of when the next attack will happen. This intense worry may lead to avoiding places or situations where panic attacks have occurred in the past.

5. Significant behavioral changes related to the attacks, such as avoiding situations out of fear of triggering an attack.

6. Persistent fear or worry about having more attacks and what the attacks mean, which can interfere with your daily activities.

7. Severe pangs of anxiety and feelings of being detached from oneself.

8. Fear of dying or losing control during the attack.

Remember, everyone’s experience with panic disorder can differ slightly and having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean one has panic disorder. Only a medical professional can make that diagnosis.

Diagnosis Panic disorder

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms. These episodes, known as panic attacks, can happen at any time, even during sleep. During a panic attack, one may experience symptoms such as heart palpitations, sweating, trembling or shaking, shortness of breath, feelings of choking, chest pain or discomfort, nausea, dizziness or faintness, and a fear of losing control or dying.

People with panic disorder often worry about when the next attack will happen and actively try to prevent future attacks by avoiding places, situations, or behaviors they associate with panic attacks. This fear and avoidance or anticipatory anxiety can become so strong that it interferes with daily activities and leads to significant distress.

The exact cause of panic disorder is not fully understood and is likely to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. It is also common for panic disorder to be accompanied by other mental health conditions such as depression or other anxiety disorders. Effective treatments are available, typically involving cognitive-behavioral therapy, medications, or a combination of both. Proper treatment can reduce or prevent panic attacks in most cases.

Treatment of Panic disorder

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that can be effectively managed and potentially even prevented with treatment. Treatment typically involves psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both. The two main treatments for panic disorder are psychotherapy and medications:

1. Psychotherapy: Also called talk therapy or psychological counseling (psychotherapy), therapy can help reduce the symptoms of panic attacks. Cognitive behavioral therapy is considered effective in treating panic disorders. It teaches you through your own experience that panic symptoms aren’t dangerous and helps you develop skills to cope with the panic attacks. Your therapist can also provide education about panic disorder and what causes a panic attack.

2. Medications: Several types of medication can help. Antidepressants can prevent panic attacks, and anti-anxiety medicines can help stop a panic attack. Certain types of heart medication, such as beta blockers, can also help to manage physical symptoms of panic.

In some cases, a combination of medication and psychotherapy might be the most effective. It’s important to note that it might take several weeks to see an improvement. In the meantime, these self-care strategies may help:

Regular physical activity and exercise: Can help manage symptoms of anxiety and depression and can promote better sleep.
Stress management and relaxation techniques: These include breathing exercises, massage, and yoga.
Avoiding alcohol, caffeine and illicit substances: These can trigger or worsand panic attacks.
Regular, sufficient sleep: Lack of sleep can increase anxiety.

Note: It’s very important to consult with healthcare and mental health providers to develop a treatment plan that works best for each individual. The most effective treatment can vary greatly based on a variety of factors, including the severity of the panic disorder, the presence of any co-existing mental or physical health conditions, and the individual’s personal response to medication. Don’t hesitate to communicate openly about what’s working and what’s not. This will allow your healthcare provider to find the best treatment approach for you.

Medications commonly used for Panic disorder

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that features repeated episodes of intense fear and anxiety, often with physical symptoms like a racing heartbeat, shortness of breath, and dizziness. It can be quite debilitating if left untreated, but with proper care and management, people with panic disorder can see a significant reduction in symptoms.

The most common medications used to treat panic disorder include:

1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) like Prozac and Zoloft: These are typically the first type of medication that doctors prescribe for panic disorder. SSRIs work by increasing the amount of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, in your brain which helps in mood stabilization.

2. Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): Medications like Effexor and Cymbalta are newer types of antidepressants that affect both serotonin and norepinephrine, two neurotransmitters believed to play a key role in panic disorder.

3. Benzodiazepines such as Xanax and Klonopin: These medicines can help to reduce the intensity of panic attacks. However, they have potential for dependency and withdrawal symptoms if stopped abruptly, so they’re typically used for short periods of time, or as needed.

4. Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs): These include drugs such as Tofranil and Anafranil. They are older medications, so they’re not often a first choice for treatment due to their side effects.

5. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like Nardil and Marplan: Given their side effects and dietary restrictions, these medications are usually considered if other treatments fail. They also interact with a number of other medications and some types of food.

6. Beta blockers: These are used off-label to help control the physical symptoms of a panic attack. They’re not typically used for long-term management, but may be helpful in certain situations.

7. Atypical Antipsychotics: In some cases, low-dose atypical antipsychotics like Seroquel may be used.

These medications can have different side effects and contradictions, so it’s important to discuss them with a healthcare provider. Additionally, therapy or counseling is often a key part of treatment for panic disorder. The most effective types of therapy for panic disorder are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure therapy.

Please remember to always consult with a healthcare provider for advice tailored to your specific circumstances.

Prevention of Panic disorder

To prevent panic disorder, various strategies can be adopted, some of which include:

1. Education: Educate yourself about the symptoms of panic disorder and understand that it is a real condition that requires treatment. Recognizing symptoms can help you start treatment early and avoid complication.

2. Early treatment: If you experience symptoms of panic disorder, consult with a mental health professional promptly. Early treatment can often prevent panic attacks from progressing to a full-fledged panic disorder.

3. Reduce stress: Chronic stress can contribute to the development of panic disorder. It is important to develop healthy methods to cope with stress, such as exercise, meditation, and deep-breathing exercises.

Panic disorder

4. Healthy lifestyle: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can be beneficial. This includes getting regular exercise, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, eating a balanced diet, and avoiding consumption of stimulants such as caffeine and nicotine. Alcohol and illicit substance abuse are also known to contribute to panic disorders.

5. Regular therapy: Regular therapy can help you manage your symptoms, especially cognitive behavioral therapy which teaches you to manage your fears and anxiety.

6. Regular medical check-ups: Regularly scheduled check-ups with your doctor can help detect any changes in your health that may trigger a panic attack.

7. Family support: Having a good support system can help in managing panic attacks. Sharing your experiences with understanding friends and family can bring a sense of relief and understanding.

Remember, it’s important to seek help from a healthcare provider if you’re experiencing ongoing panic attacks. They can work with you to create a treatment plan that best fits your individual needs. Early detection and treatment may help reduce the severity of the disorder or prevent it altogether.

FAQ’s about Panic disorder

1. What is Panic Disorder?
Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress.

2. What triggers Panic Disorder?
Specific causes of Panic Disorder are unknown. However, it is believed to be a combination of factors including genetics, major stress or life changes, temperament that is more sensitive to stress or prone to negative emotions, and certain changes in the way parts of your brain function.

3. What are the common symptoms of Panic Disorder?
Symptoms can include sudden attacks of fear and nervousness, as well as physical symptoms such as sweating, feeling weak or dizzy, rapid heart rate, stomach discomfort, feeling hot or a cold sweat, and a fear of dying or losing control.

4. How is Panic Disorder diagnosed?
Diagnosis usually involves a thorough medical history and physical exam. It may also include ruling out other potential causes for the symptoms. In some cases, a psychologist or psychiatrist may be involved to confirm the diagnosis.

5. Is Panic Disorder treatable?
Yes, Panic Disorder is highly treatable, and individuals can lead normal, productive lives with appropriate treatment and management. Treatment options often include psychotherapy, medications, or combinations of the two.

6. What coping strategies can help manage Panic Disorder?
Self-care and stress management are essential components of managing Panic Disorder. Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and healthy eating habits can significantly reduce anxiety symptoms. Learning to manage stress can also play a crucial role, and techniques such as meditation, deep breathing, yoga, or other relaxation techniques can be effective.

7. Are there any risks associated with untreated Panic Disorder?
Untreated Panic Disorder can potentially lead to complications, such as depression, substance abuse, medical complications related to the physical symptoms of panic attacks (like heart disease), and suicidal thoughts or actions, among others.

8. Can Panic Disorder lead to other mental health disorders?
Panic Disorder often coexists with other mental health disorders, such as depression, substance abuse, or other anxiety disorders.

Remember, it’s essential to consult with healthcare professionals for accurate information and treatment options.

Useful links

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder that revolves around panic attacks. People with this disorder experience pandemonium, often without warning, which can drastically affect their quality of life. There is a wealth of valuable research being conducted around panic disorder, its causes, potential treatments, and more. Here are a few relevant articles from academic sources:


Remember that it’s essential to consult with health professionals if you or someone you know is dealing with panic disorder. These articles provide valuable research and insights but are not a replacement for professional medical advice.

Complications of Panic disorder

Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks, which are moments of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms such as palpitations, sweating, and trembling. Some of the complications that may arise from Panic disorder include:

1. Development of Phobias: One of most common is agoraphobia, a fear of being in places where escape might be difficult or embarassing, or situations where help might not be available in the event of a panic attack.

2. Depression: Panic disorder increases the risk of developing depression. Constant feelings of anxiety and fear can be exhausting and take a toll on a person’s mental health.

3. Substance Abuse: It’s also common for people with anxiety disorders like panic disorder to turn to substance use to cope with their symptoms. This can lead to issues of addiction and substance abuse.

4. Financial Difficulties: Recurrent panic attacks can interfere with a person’s ability to work or attend school, leading to job loss or academic struggles.

5. Physical Health Issues: The intense physical symptoms of a panic attack can put stress on the body and may lead to physical health issues, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and other stress-related disorders.

6. Social Isolation: Someone suffering with panic disorder may avoid social situations out of fear of having a panic attack in public, leading to feelings of isolation.

7. Quality of Life: Overall, this condition can significantly decrease an individual’s quality of life. Without proper treatment, a person may live in constant fear of the next panic attack.

8. Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: Severe cases of panic disorder can lead to suicidal thoughts or behaviors. It’s very important that these situations are treated urgently with professional help.

Therefore, proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to manage the panic disorder and these potential complications.

Home remedies of Panic disorder

Panic disorder can be a disabling condition that can significantly affect a person’s quality of life. While professional help including psychiatric medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy should always be considered, there are also home remedies that can complement these therapies:

1. Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Practices such as yoga, meditation, relaxed breathing exercises (such as diaphragmatic or “deep” breathing) may help in reducing the frequency and intensity of panic attacks.

2. Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity acts as a natural anxiety reliever. It helps boost your mood and serves as a natural stress reliever. Regular exercise also helps improve sleep and control panic disorder.

3. Healthy Diet: Some foods and beverages, like caffeine and alcohol, may increase anxiety levels and trigger panic attacks. Subsequently, maintaining a well-balanced diet can help keep your mood and energy levels stable.

4. Adequate Rest: Sleep deprivation can exacerbate feelings of anxiety and panic. Ensure you’re getting a healthy amount of sleep each night.

5. Self-Care: Taking time for yourself and practicing good self-care habits can be extremely therapeutic. This includes hobbies or activities that you enjoy or make you feel better, such as a warm bath, reading a book, listening to your favorite music, etc.

6. Stay Connected: Maintaining strong, supportive relationships with family, friends, or support groups can help reduce feelings of isolation and help you manage your disorder.

7. Limit Stimulants: Reduce or eliminate caffeine, nicotine and any other stimulants as these can exacerbate the symptoms of panic disorder.

8. Herbal Remedies: Some people with panic disorder might find relief from symptoms with the use of herbal remedies such as chamomile, valerian, lavender, and lemon balm, among others. Be sure to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any herbal supplement, as some can interact with medications and cause side effects.

Remember, these are suggested measures to manage your panic disorder and it’s recommended you consult with a healthcare provider before implementing any new practices to ensure they suit your overall health.

Important: A panic disorder can be a serious medical condition. These at-home tips should never replace a visit to a healthcare provider if you believe you may have a panic disorder.

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Mental Health,

Last Update: January 5, 2024