Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and belly. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and is frequently fatal. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.

Ovarian cancer often has no symptoms in the early stages. Later stages are associated with symptoms, but they can be non-specific, such as loss of appetite and weight loss.

Ovarian cancer

The exact cause is unknown, but certain factors may increase the risk of developing the disease, such as age (it’s more common in women aged over 50), family history of ovarian or breast cancer, and endometriosis among others. If detected early and treated timely, survival rate can be as high as 90% but this rate decreases significantly in the later stages. Treatment typically involves surgery and chemotherapy.

Causes of Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer happens when normal cells in an ovary change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. The exact cause of this process is still unknown, but the development of ovarian cancer may be influenced by several factors including:

1. Age: Ovarian cancer is most common in postmenopausal women, with half of all cases occurring in women over 63 years of age.

2. Genetics: Certain inherited gene mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

3. Family history: Women with a mother, sister, or daughter who has had ovarian cancer are at a higher risk.

4. Hormonal factors: Certain hormone therapies, like estrogen therapy after menopause, can increase the chance of developing the disease.

5. Reproductive history: Women who have never carried a pregnancy to term or who had their first child after age 35 may have an increased risk.

6. Endometriosis: This condition, where the tissue from the lining of the uterus grows elsewhere in the body, is associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Remember, having one or more risk factors does not guarantee a person will develop ovarian cancer. Many women with risk factors never develop the disease, and many women with ovarian cancer do not have any known risk factors. Always consult with your healthcare provider for accurate information.

Risk Factors of Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer involves the abnormal growth of cells in the ovaries, which are the reproductive glands found only in women. There are several risk factors associated with the development of ovarian cancer, including:

1. Age: Most ovarian cancers develop after menopause. It’s most common in women between ages 50 to 60 years.

2. Family History: Having a mother, sister, or daughter who has had ovarian cancer increases your risk. Mutations of certain genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) can increase the risk significantly, having a family history of breast cancer can also increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

3. Inherited Gene Mutations: A small percentage of ovarian cancers are caused by mutations in certain genes passed from parent to child. These include the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, well-known risk factors for breast cancer, and gene mutations associated with Lynch syndrome.

4. Reproductive History: Women who started menstruating at an early age (before 12), had no children, had their first child after 30, or experienced menopause after 50 may have an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

5. Endometriosis: This condition, where the tissue from the lining of uterus grows elsewhere in the body, may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

6. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Some studies suggest that women who take estrogen alone as hormone replacement therapy after menopause might have a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer.

7. Obesity and Overweight: Women who are overweight have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

8. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, alcohol consumption and an unhealthy diet may also increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer.

However, having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that a woman will develop ovarian cancer. It just increases the odds. There are also numerous protective factors that can reduce these risks. Always consult with a healthcare provider for accurate information.

Signs and Symptoms of Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, it’s more difficult to treat and is frequently fatal. While early-stage ovarian cancer seldom causes any symptoms, when they do appear they can mirror those of other common conditions such as bloating or irritable bowel syndrome.

Here are some common signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer:

1. Abdominal bloating or swelling: This is when the area below your stomach swells or feels full.

2. Quickly feeling full when eating: You might feel full after eating way less than usual.

3. Weight loss: Rapid or unexplained weight loss is a common symptom of many types of cancer, including ovarian cancer.

4. Discomfort in the pelvic area: You might notice some persistent and nonspecific pelvic discomfort.

5. Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation.

6. A frequent need to urinate: You might notice an urge to urinate regularly.

7. Changes in menstruation.

8. Lower back pain.

It’s important to note that these symptoms do not always mean you have ovarian cancer. They can be caused by other, less serious health issues. It’s also worth noting that early-stage ovarian cancer rarely causes any symptoms. However, if you experience these symptoms regularly and they feel different from usual, you should definitely consult with a healthcare provider. Early detection of any form of cancer tends to result in a better prognosis.

Diagnosis Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The ovaries are a pair of small, almond-shaped organs located on either side of the uterus in a woman’s body. These are responsible for producing eggs for reproduction and also produce hormones like estrogen and progesterone.

There are several types of ovarian cancer, but the three most common are Epithelial ovarian cancer (which starts from cells on the outer surface of the ovaries), Germ cell ovarian cancer (which arises from the cells that produce eggs), and Stromal ovarian cancer (originating from supportive tissue that produces female hormones and connects the different structures of the ovaries).

Unfortunately, ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread significantly within the pelvis and abdomen, at which point it is more challenging to treat and typically deadly. This is largely because the symptoms are often vague and can also occur in many other less serious conditions. These can include abdominal bloating or swelling, quickly feeling full when eating, weight loss, discomfort in the pelvic area, changes in bowel habits, such as constipation, and a frequent need to urinate.

Risk factors for ovarian cancer include age (most ovarian cancers develop after menopause), a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, certain genetic changes (like BRCA mutations), and a history of endometriosis, among other factors.

The exact cause of ovarian cancer is unspecified. However, it’s suspected that several factors, including age, certain genetic mutations, and particular lifestyle factors (such as those influencing hormone levels), may play a role.

Methods used to diagnose ovarian cancer include pelvic exams, imaging tests, blood tests, and biopsy. Treatments often involve surgery to remove the cancerous growth, with chemotherapy as a common supplemental or alternative treatment method. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better a woman’s chance for recovery.

Treatment of Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer treatment depends on many factors, such as the type and stage of the cancer, woman’s overall health, and personal preferences. Here’s a general outline of treatment methods:

1. Surgery: This is the primary treatment for the majority of ovarian cancers. The procedure usually involves removing both ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and the uterus. The doctor may also remove the omentum (tissue covering the stomach and large intestine). If the cancer is found at a very early stage, it might be possible to remove only the involved ovary and its fallopian tube.

2. Chemotherapy: Post surgery, most patients receive chemotherapy. This therapy uses drugs to kill any remaining cancer cells, reduce the risk of recurrence, and can also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery in advanced stages.

3. Targeted therapy: Drugs like Bevacizumab and PARP inhibitors are targeted therapies often used for ovarian cancer. They attack specific types of cancer cells or the blood vessels that provide them with nutrients, aiming to limit the cancer’s ability to grow and spread.

4. Radiation therapy: While less common, this uses high-energy X-rays or particles to kill cancer cells. It is not usually used in initial treatment of ovarian cancer, but may have a role in certain situations or for pain relief.

5. Hormone therapy: Certain types of ovarian cancers are sensitive to hormones. Therefore, hormone therapy, which seeks to block the body’s ability to produce these hormones, or alternately, blocks the hormone’s ability to promote cancer cell growth, may be an effective treatment.

6. Clinical trials: These are research studies investigating new treatments. Participation in a clinical trial may offer patients access to cutting-edge treatments, though it also carries risks, including potential side effects and the possibility that the new treatment might not work.

All treatments have side effects and it is important to discuss these with the healthcare team before making a decision. After treatment ends, follow-up care is necessary to monitor recovery and check for any signs of the cancer returning.

Medications commonly used for Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is often treated using different types of medications during chemotherapy. The type of medication varies depending on the stage and grade of the cancer and the patient’s overall health. Here are some commonly used medications for ovarian cancer:

1. Paclitaxel (Taxol): It interferes with the growth of cancer cells and slows their growth and spread in the body.

2. Carboplatin: A chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancer. It’s often used in combination with other medications. This drug works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing.

3. Bevacizumab (Avastin): It’s a type of biological therapy often used alongside chemotherapy. Bevacizumab blocks a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which helps the cancer to grow new blood vessels. This reduces the cancer’s blood supply and slows down its growth.

4. Niraparib (Zejula): An oral medication designed to help prevent cancer cells from repairing their damaged DNA.

5. Ipilimumab (Yervoy) and Nivolumab (Opdivo): These two drugs are immunotherapies; they stimulate the body’s immune system to work harder or smarter to attack cancer cells.

6. Platinum chemotherapy: Carboplatin or cisplatin are also used to treat recurrent ovarian cancer.

These are general categories of drugs and the actual prescription may vary depending on the treating doctor’s perspective. They all have various side effects related to their usage and should be taken only under the supervision of a medical health care provider. Furthermore, a patient’s response to these drugs may differ individually.

Always discuss your options with your oncologist so they can consider your overall health and specific circumstances when deciding on the best treatment plan.

Prevention of Ovarian cancer

Prevention of ovarian cancer might not be completely possible, but there are several strategies that can significantly decrease your risk.

1. Regular Check-ups: Regular gynecological examinations can help detect any abnormalities early, increasing the chances of successful treatment.

Ovarian cancer

2. Genetics: If ovarian cancer runs in your family, consider speaking to a genetic counselor who can help assess your risk and guide you through preventative measures. Genetic testing can be done to check for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations that might indicate a higher risk.

3. Oral Contraceptives: Birth control pills have been found to lower the risk of ovarian cancer. The longer a woman uses them, the lower her risk may be.

4. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Both of these may lower the risk. The more children a woman has and the longer she breastfeeds, the lower her ovarian cancer risk tends to be.

5. Tubal Ligation: This surgical procedure, commonly known as having your tubes tied, has been shown to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

6. Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables, and regular exercise can improve your overall health and potentially reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

7. Hysterectomy: In certain cases, women with a high risk of ovarian cancer may choose to have their uterus removed. However, this is a serious decision that can have significant implications and should only be considered after discussing the risks and benefits with your doctor.

Remember that having one or more of these risk factors does not guarantee that you will develop ovarian cancer, just as following these preventative measures does not guarantee that you will not develop it. Be sure to discuss your individual risk factors and potential prevention strategies with your healthcare provider.

FAQ’s about Ovarian cancer

1. What is Ovarian Cancer?
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries, which are female reproductive glands that produce eggs for reproduction. These also are the main source of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

2. What are the symptoms of Ovarian Cancer?
Often, ovarian cancer may not cause any symptoms until the later stages. However, symptoms may include bloating, pelvic or belly pain, difficulty eating or feeling full quickly, and urinary changes.

3. Who is at risk for Ovarian Cancer?
Factors that can increase your risk include being aged over 50, having a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, never having been pregnant, overweight or obesity, and factors related to estrogen exposure and reproductive history.

4. How is Ovarian Cancer diagnosed?
Diagnosis of ovarian cancer typically includes a physical examination, a pelvic examination, blood tests, a biopsy, and imaging tests.

5. What are the stages of Ovarian Cancer?
The stages of ovarian cancer range from stage I (cancer is confined to one or both ovaries) to stage IV (cancer has spread to other body organs).

6. How is Ovarian Cancer treated?
Treatment options for ovarian cancer commonly include surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy and radiation therapy.

7. What is the survival rate for Ovarian Cancer?
Survival rates depend on the stage and type of the cancer, the overall health of the patient, and the available treatment options.

8. Can Ovarian Cancer be prevented?
While there’s no surefire way to prevent ovarian cancer, certain actions like maintaining a healthy lifestyle, considering the benefits and risks of taking birth control pills, and considering preventive surgery for those with a high risk can help reduce the overall risk.

9. Does a pap smear detect ovarian cancer?
No, a pap smear does not detect ovarian cancer. It is used to detect cervical cancer. Imaging tests and biopsies are primarily used to diagnose ovarian cancer.

10. Is there a genetic link to ovarian cancer?
Yes, certain inherited gene mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, Lynch Syndrome, and others can increase the risk of ovarian cancer.

Please consult a medical professional for personalized advice about these issues. This information is meant to provide general insight and can’t be used as a replacement for professional medical advice.

Useful links

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. This disease often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen and can be hard to treat and is frequently fatal.

Here are some useful links to articles from journals:

  1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27743768/
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30867104/

Please remember that not all these articles may be available to read for free. You may need to pay for access or borrow them from a subscribing library. Also, keep in mind that understanding medical papers often requires deep knowledge of the subject.

As an AI Assistant, I’d recommend that you consult with health professionals to get a better comprehension of the topic.

Complications of Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer can lead to several complications, primarily due to the fact that it is often diagnosed at a late stage. Here are some complications associated with ovarian cancer:

1. Spread of Cancer: Ovarian cancer often goes undiagnosed until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat and can be fatal. It may spread to surrounding organs, such as the liver, bladder, or colon.

2. Ascites: Ovarian cancer can cause fluid to build up in the abdomen. This condition, known as ascites, can lead to bloating, pain, and shortness of breath. It’s generally a sign that the cancer has spread widely in the abdomen.

3. Bowel Obstruction: Ovarian cancer can block the intestine, either directly by growing into the bowel or indirectly by producing ascites which presses on the bowel. Bowel obstruction can cause severe pain, nausea, and vomiting.

4. Pain: This can come from the tumor itself, or from treatments like surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.

5. Nutritional Challenges: Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting due to the disease or its treatment can lead to weight loss and nutritional deficiencies.

6. Emotional Distress: Like any serious disease, ovarian cancer can lead to significant emotional distress, anxiety, depression and fear associated with diagnosis, treatment and potential mortality.

7. Post-surgical Complications: These may include infection, bleeding, blood clots, and complications from anesthesia.

8. Side effects of Treatment: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which are used to treat ovarian cancer, can cause side effects such as hair loss, mouth sores, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and an increased susceptibility to infections.

9. Fertility Issues: Ovarian cancer treatments often impact fertility. Younger women who wish to conceive may need to consult fertility specialists before beginning treatment.

In the face of these potential complications, comprehensive care including pain specialists, nutritionists, and counselors, along with medical treatment can contribute significantly to the patient’s quality of life.

Home remedies of Ovarian cancer

It’s important to clarify that cancer is a serious medical condition that requires professional medical treatment. There are no home remedies that can treat or cure ovarian cancer. Management and treatment of ovarian cancer often involves surgery and chemotherapy under the guidance of an oncology specialist. However, after discussing with your doctor, certain lifestyle changes, exercises, and dietary habits can be employed as part of an overall treatment plan to enhance your health and well-being. Nevertheless, these should never replace medical treatments. Always consult with your healthcare provider regarding any symptoms or changes in your condition.

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Last Update: January 5, 2024