Overview

In the nebulizer, medical solutions are broken down by an ultrasonic power or by compressed air using oxygen further suspension it into many small aerosol droplets which can be directly inhaled through the mouthpiece of the device. The mixture of gas and liquid particles are commonly defined as an aerosol and the best example of naturally occurring aerosol is mist which is formed when small vaporised liquid particles are mixed with hot ambient air when cooled down, condensing into a fine cloud of visible water droplets.

The medication is to be directly administered to the lungs when using a nebulizer for inhalation. For the inhaled aerosol droplets to penetrate into the narrow pipes of the airways, the narrow pipes like branches must be as small as one to five micro-meter. If not the medicine is only absorbed by mouth cavity which is less effective.

Know what is a nebulizer machine

Nebulizer, a medical equipment for a quick and direct medication to the lungs of the people suffering with asthma and other respiratory difficulty. It is simple to operate device which is basically in the form of a face mask or a mouthpiece which include medicine cup, tube and a mask. For a patient to inhale, liquid is turned up to form a mist by a nebulizer. The are electrically powered or battery based machines. For the people suffering with either asthma or COPD, a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis or with bronchiectasis, nebulizer is prescribed. Even for the children suffering from respiratory infection like bronchiolitis doctors prescribe nebulizer.

Types of nebulizers Include:

Mechanical type- Soft mist inhaler type

Metered dose to the patient is provided by this technology. Liquid which is at the bottom of inhaler is 180 degrees clockwise rotated by building up tension to the spring. When the inhaler bottom is activated, the pressure is imposed on the liquid by the energy released by the spring which causes the liquid to spray out from the two nozzles. Then the mist is inhaled and 5.8 micro-meters turned out to be the average size of the mist’s droplet. This inhaler proved to be higher efficient compared to conventional one due to its low velocity of mist.

Electrical- Jet nebulizer

These are most commonly used ones, also knows as automizers. Jet nebulizers are tubed to the compressors causing air or oxygen to compress causing to flow at very high velocity making medicine to turn into an aerosol, that is inhaled by the person. Though it is heavy and works with noise many hospitals still use it for the serious conditioned cases and low operation cost make it preferable.

Ultrasonic wave nebulizer

They are portable new nebulizers. A high frequency ultrasonic waves are caused by the electronic oscillator inside the equipment of the ultrasonic nebulizer further causing vibrations to the internal mechanism which is in contact with the liquid and the vapour mist is formed by the high frequency vibrations. Its noise free mechanism makes it preferable.

Vibrating mesh technology

These are the latest nebulizers around the market. This nebulizer works with a mesh technology. Vibrating mesh technology nebulizer replaces the old problems such as liquid wastage, displeasing heating of the liquid medicine etc.

Conditions that nebulizer treats

  • Croup: It is a common cold symptom which is caused by the virus blocking the airway by swelling it which brings out a barking cough, fever or running nose in many children.
  • Cystic fibrosis: A thick mucus is developed in the airway by blocking and making harder to inhale. This is basically a genetic disease.
  • Epiglottitis: This is a result of bacteria causing pneumonia. A severe airway swelling is caused due to this leading to a noisy breathe while inhaling.
  • Pneumonia: It is a chronic lung infection which is mostly found in babies

Making them hospitalised.

  • RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus causes symptoms like cold and with an uncommon symptom with each child. It can be even develop in infants.

Different ways a nebulizer works

Mask or a mouthpiece

An automized medicine is inhaled by the patient through a mouthpiece with a long nebulizer tube attached to it. Even the nebulizer mask is most often used. Though it covers the mouth and nose, this mask is a clear plastic which is simple, making the person or the patient to be free while the medicine flows without anyone holding the mouthpiece.

Home Nebulizers

This enables the patient to freely medicate portably where ever they like but having a standard outlet such as in their living rooms, or anywhere in their house they have ports as they work on alternate current power source.

Portable Nebulizers

This nebulizer is an interesting thing for the patients to know that it can be carried anywhere with an added advantage that fits in your purse or in any fit free compartment of your vehicles. No need of a thought of worrying about difficulty in breathing when a patient is in duty or out or away from home as they have a rechargeable batteries or power-port adapter with it. This is easily accessible and can be easily restored.

Pediatric Nebulizers For Children

Pediatric nebulizer is truly a children friendly nebulizer, which is introduced with many types of fun things or characters including toy cars, cats, race cars and many more according to the child’s preference which can even blend the equipment with other objects in their rooms for their comfort. By the visually appealing treatment, parents don’t need to thrive for their child’s treatment but it would be something that children accept happily as a part of their daily routine until they are done with the medication. If your children are afraid to use the inhalers or if they are away from it, this nebulizer is the best one to choose for your child. This can be useful when your child face difficulty in breathing or when any sort of asthma symptoms is seen.

Use of a basic nebulizer

If a nebulizer is advised, you will be guided by the nurse in the hospitals. If not bought from a pharmacy, a pharmacist may explain its working. There exist a small difference in each nebulizer machine operation, so it is very crucial to read and understand the instructions given in the equipment. It is a simple usage device and the usual steps include:

  • Never feel lazy to start the medication with a clean nebulizer
  • As instructed in the set or prescribed by the doctor medicine cup must be filled with the medicine.
  • A mask, tube, mouthpiece and top piece must be assembled.
  • Tubing is attached to the machine.
  • Nebulizer is turned ON.
  • For the medication to be delivered perfectly, the medicine cup and the mouthpiece are to be hold upright.
  • Make sure your nebulizer is misting when it is ON
  • Even make sure the mouthpiece or mask that is used for the patient isn’t leaking. The usual time taken is about 15 minutes to inhale all of it.
  • Then the medicine is inhaled slowly by the mouthpiece by taking deep breath.

It is a good idea to check out with the pharmacist or doctor before purchasing nebulizer as some machine’s manufacturers require the use of a specific type.

Ways to maintain a clean nebulizer- Disinfecting

The guidelines in general are demonstrated in the instruction set and are as follows:

  • Work on a clean surface before and after use and with washed clean hands.
  • The detachable parts are to be removed
  • After the use the equipment, medicine chamber, mask or mouthpiece must be disconnected and washed off with soapy warm water and sterilize or with one part of white vinegar with three parts of water.
  • Soak the parts which can be wet for a good period of time. Say, one hour.
  • All the pieces are to be wiped with a clean hand towel and air dried.
  • According the instruction set sanitize the equipment.

Never share the used components with any other person. Ensure how often to replace the components by the manual basically some are restored three to four times a year. Infections are caused by the bacteria if no good care is taken to the components.

Nebulizer usage tips with babies

Here are few tips to treat discomfort babies who are squirmy

  • For the treatment to be tolerated by your baby it is preferred to nebulize the baby when he or she is more likely to sleep during a bedtime or a nap.
  • If the baby feels uneasy with noise produced by the nebulizer, try placing it on thick towel to reduce the vibrations significantly its noise.
  • Using a long tube would help your baby from noisy, and you to un manageable situations as the noisiest equipment will be place far from your baby.
  • By holding your baby upright during the medication in your lap, enables more medicine to flow through the lungs as the baby can breathe more deep.
  • Swaddling the baby at treatment time is also a good option for a mother with a naughty child, if you are comfortable with it.
  • As the infants often breathe through the nose instead of their mouth, a mask is preferred for infants.
  • Children, as they grow older usually age six or old, instead of a mask they may use a handheld mouthpiece allowing more of the medication to enter into the lungs rather escaping around the mask.

Nebulizer Use:

As mentioned earlier these machines are ordinarily used for the treatment of respiratory disorders like asthma, COPD, pneumonia and many more unexpected treatment. It is mainly used to treat lungs treating disorders. For the effective treatment to be done by the nebulizer, medicine is to be inhaled straight into the lungs. It is more preferred as it speeds up the treatments and has very few side effects in comparison to other alternatives. Although it commonly reduces inflammation, swelling, and mucus within the airways, the medication depends on the illness it is treating.

Pros of nebulizers

  • When a person is attacked by asthma, nebulizers are easier to use, as you do not need to take deep breaths while on this treatment.
  • One of the effective ways to deliver aerosolized medication.
  • More than one medication can be taken at once besides patient being undertaking this treatment.
  • Nebulizer is the best and easier to use with younger children making it ideal for infants.
  • As available in portable options, nebulizers are easier to travel with.

Cons of nebulizers

  • In comparison to inhalers they are not easy to transport.
  • Nebulizers often require stationary alternating current (AC) power source.
  • Delivery of medication slightly takes a longer time as compared to other medicine like an inhaler.
  • Contaminated mist can be spread if not properly cleaned after every use.

Conclusion

The primary purpose of the nebulizer is to treat certain respiratory illnesses by directly inserting the medicine into the lungs through the use of compressed liquid medicine. Many more direct medicines are enabled for the treatment of this type and there are several different types which are considered depending on where and how will they be used. To maintain the nebulizer’s safety and effectiveness, perfect nebulizer must be chosen and there after keeping it clean and correct storage plays a vital role. With the proper adherence to the given guidelines for use, nebulizer is a helpful treatment for those patients suffering from lungs and respiratory illness.

Nebulizers are the safest and effective way to deliver medicine to an infant. If your child or a patient appears to have more difficulty in breathing even after the treatment, always contact patient’s doctor. Be alert as some infants rarely can have the opposite expected reactions during the medication treatment. Prior to all, reviewing the possible side effects with your patient’s doctor can be helpful to identify the symptoms more quickly for the fast cure. No sickness is permanent- have a healthy life.

References

  1. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/08942680152007918
  2. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm/145.5.1117
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