In an age where the accuracy of scientific publication is increasingly coming under close scrutiny, the role of a peer reviewer has never been more pivotal. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism has recently published an invaluable guide, designed to steer potential reviewers through the intricate labyrinth that is the peer review process. This guide, featured in the February 2024 issue of Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, sheds light on the integral elements and skills needed to efficiently and ethically review scientific papers.

Comprehensive in its reach, the article titled “Presentation and publication skills: How to review a paper,” authored by Nicolaas E. Deutz, Nathalie Delzenne, Nathan A. Davies, and Dileep N. Lobo, delves into the key responsibilities involved in the peer review process. Published on January 16, 2024, and available online via the DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2023.12.023, the guide is a critical resource for those endeavoring to uphold the standards of clinical research.

The following report summarizes the insights presented by the guide and explores their implications for the scientific community. This article further aims to highlight the practicality of the authors’ advice for those embarking on the important task of peer review.

Essential Responsibilities and Confidentiality

The cornerstone of an effective peer review system lies in the ethical conduct and dedication of the reviewer. The authors emphasize the importance of responsibility in responding to review invitations and maintaining strict confidentiality throughout the review process. An individual’s ability to manage their availability and allocate sufficient time to the process is paramount. Moreover, professional and courteous communication is crucial, especially when articulating critiques within the review report. Adherence to deadlines ensures the timely dissemination of scientific knowledge, integral to the advancement of clinical nutrition and metabolism research.

Selecting Peer Review Assignments

Central to the guide is the decision-making process for accepting or rejecting peer review invitations. Reviewers are encouraged to conduct a self-assessment of their expertise and interest level in relation to the manuscript’s subject matter. Crucially, potential conflicts of interest must be acknowledged and resolved to prevent any bias in the evaluation of the research. When faced with a resubmission, reviewers are advised on how to efficiently approach the revised manuscript, balancing a fresh assessment with consideration of previous iterations.

Evaluation of Manuscript Components

In-depth insights are provided on appraising the different sections of a paper. Starting with the abstract, reviewers are taught how to discern whether the summary adequately captures the essence of the research. The introduction is to be inspected for its establishment of a strong rationale and hypothesis for the study. The materials and methods section warrants a thorough check for reproducibility and ethical compliance. Next, the results section must be evaluated for its precision and alignment with stated methodologies. Finally, the discussion should be reviewed for its capacity to cohesively interpret findings, integrate them into existing literature, and suggest future inquiries.

Constructing a Review Report

Compiling the review report is perhaps the most delicate aspect of the reviewer’s duties, requiring a careful synthesis of detailed analysis. The guide equips reviewers with strategies to effectively communicate their evaluations, stresses the necessity of constructive feedback, and encourages suggestions that can elevate the quality of the manuscript.

Practical Tips and Training

Beyond the structural critique, the authors furnish readers with additional practical tips to enhance the review experience. For example, taking notes as one reads and using annotation tools to keep track of thoughts is highly recommended. The authors also encourage potential reviewers to seek mentorship and partake in training workshops to build their skills.

Ethical Considerations

The guide does not shy away from addressing ethical implications within the review process. It calls for sincerity in acknowledging one’s own expertise, and it highlights the importance of objectivity and impartiality. The authors also address the potential for reviewers to experience pressure, encouraging them to seek clarity from editors when in doubt.

Generating Impact and Gaining Recognition

While the task of reviewing is often anonymous and may seem to go unnoticed, the authors note that it is an integral component of one’s professional development. The quality of a review can establish a reviewer’s reputation within the academic community and can offer opportunities for further engagement in editorial activities.


In summary, “Presentation and publication skills: How to review a paper” is a meticulous guide that arms prospective reviewers with essential knowledge for navigating the peer review process. By adhering to its prudently structured advice, reviewers can significantly contribute to the integrity and effectiveness of scientific publishing.


1. Deutz, N.E., Delzenne, N., Davies, N.A., & Lobo, D.N. (2024). Presentation and publication skills: How to review a paper. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 59, 307-311.
DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2023.12.023

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3. Kressel, H. Y., & Dixon, A. K. (2011). The Challenging and Abjectly Necessary Task of Peer Review. Radiology, 258(1), 6–9.

4. Benos, D. J., Bashari, E., Chaves, J. M., Gaggar, A., Kapoor, N., LaFrance, M., … & Zotov, A. (2007). The ups and downs of peer review. Advances in Physiology Education, 31(2), 145–152.

5. Spier, R. (2002). The history of the peer-review process. Trends in Biotechnology, 20(8), 357–358.


1. Peer Review Skills
2. Scientific Manuscript Reviewing
3. Clinical Nutrition Research
4. Academic Publishing Ethics
5. Scholarly Article Evaluation