Insomnia is a sleep disorder wherein an individual has difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite having enough opportunity to do so. This persistent condition can greatly reduce one’s quality of life by affecting health, performance at work or school, and relationships.

Symptoms of insomnia may include:

Trouble falling asleep at night
Waking up during the night
Waking up too early
Not feeling well-rested after a night’s sleep
Daytime tiredness or sleepiness
Depression, anxiety, or irritability
Difficulty paying attention or remembering things
Increased errors or accidents

Insomnia can be short-term (acute), lasting for days or weeks, or long-term (chronic), lasting for a month or longer. The causes of insomnia can vary, including stress, an irregular sleep schedule, poor sleeping habits, mental health disorders like anxiety and depression, physical conditions, certain medications, and substances like caffeine and alcohol.


It’s crucial to reach out to a healthcare professional if you’re experiencing symptoms of insomnia, as it can often be a symptom of an underlying health condition that needs treatment.

Causes of Insomnia

Insomnia, long-term or chronic inability to sleep, can be caused by various factors, grouped mainly into several categories:

1. Psychological and Mental Disorders: Conditions such as anxiety, depression, and stress contribute significantly to insomnia. People harboring these conditions often have trouble sleeping or may wake up too early.

2. Physical Conditions: Certain medical conditions can also cause insomnia, such as chronic pain, asthma, gastric problems, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders (like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s), and hormonal issues.

3. Lifestyle Factors: Certain lifestyle habits and choices can lead to insomnia. This includes irregular sleep schedule, excessive caffeine or alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise, eating too late in the evening, and using electronic devices in bed.

4. Medications: Certain drugs can interfere with sleep, including some antidepressants, heart and blood pressure medicines, allergy medications, and stimulants (like Ritalin or Adderall).

5. Sleep Disorders: Sleep-related disorders such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and others can cause or worsen insomnia.

6. Aging: As people age, they often experience changes in sleep patterns that can result in insomnia.

Remember, if you’re experiencing ongoing insomnia, it’s best to discuss this with your healthcare provider to find the causes and appropriate treatment options.

Risk Factors of Insomnia

Insomnia can be caused by various factors, including both physical and psychological issues. Here are some risk factors:

1. Age: Insomnia becomes more common as you age due to changes in sleep patterns, decreased activity, more frequent urination at night, or increased use of medications.

2. Stress: Major life stress, such as job loss or change, death of a loved one, divorce, or moving, can cause insomnia. Even daily stress can disrupt sleep.

3. Shift work: People who have unusual work schedules or work at night are more likely to get insomnia.

4. Mental Health Disorders: Having conditions such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), etc., can interfere with sleep. Insomnia is often a symptom of other mental health conditions.

5. Certain medical conditions: Certain chronic diseases can cause or exacerbate insomnia, like heart disease, asthma, neurological conditions like Alzheimer’s disease, etc.

6. Gender: Women are more likely than men to experience insomnia due to hormonal changes during menstruation and menopause.

7. Lifestyle factors: These include consuming caffeine or alcohol before bed, frequent travel across time zones (jet lag), or not maintaining a consistent sleep schedule.

8. Sleep disorders: Other sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome etc. can lead to insomnia.

9. Medications: Some drugs used for colds, allergies, depression, hypertension, asthma, and many other conditions can interfere with sleep.

10. Long term bed rest or sedentary lifestyle: Lack of physical activity can lead to interruptions in restful sleep.

These risk factors can independently or in combination contribute to sleep problems. However, often times the cause of insomnia is not clear. If persistent, insomnia should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to find the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Signs and Symptoms of Insomnia

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that makes it difficult for a person to fall asleep, stay asleep, or cause someone to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep. People with insomnia often still feel tired when they wake up. Insomnia not only affects your energy level and mood, but also your health, work performance, and quality of life.

Below are some signs and symptoms associated with insomnia:

1. Difficulty falling asleep at night: This includes tossing and turning for hours before falling asleep.

2. Waking in the middle of the night and having trouble getting back to sleep: This might occur just once or multiple times during the night.

3. Waking up earlier than intended: Those with insomnia often find themselves waking up very early in the morning and not being able to fall back asleep.

4. Not feeling well-rested after a night’s sleep: Insomnia can prevent you from getting the restful sleep that you need to feel refreshed and rejuvenated the next day.

5. Daytime tiredness or sleepiness: Even if you managed to sleep at some point during the night, you may still feel continually tired or sleepy throughout the day.

6. Irritability, depression or anxiety: Insomnia can also have emotional symptoms. The constant lack of sleep may lead to feelings of irritability, anxiety or depression.

7. Difficulty paying attention, focusing on tasks or remembering: Not getting enough sleep can also have cognitive effects. You may find it harder to focus, pay attention or remember things.

8. Increased errors or accidents, as lack of sleep may affect coordination and judgement.

9. Ongoing worries about sleep: Those struggling with insomnia may find themselves constantly worrying about their sleep, which can create a vicious cycle of sleep-related anxiety and further sleep problems.

These symptoms can be indicative of acute or chronic insomnia. Acute insomnia lasts for a short amount of time, usually due to life circumstances, and often resolves without any treatment. Chronic insomnia, on the other hand, occurs at least three nights a week and lasts for at least three months. This can be related to a broader health issue and may require treatment. If you’re experiencing any of these symptoms, it would be beneficial to consult a healthcare provider.

Diagnosis Insomnia

Insomnia is a sleep disorder where individuals find it hard to fall asleep, stay asleep, or both. People with insomnia often feel dissatisfied with their sleep and usually experience one or more of the following symptoms: fatigue, low energy, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and decreased performance in work or at school.

There are two types of insomnia:

1. Primary insomnia: This type of insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems not directly associated with any other health condition or problem.

2. Secondary insomnia: This type of insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems because of something else, such as a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn); pain; medication; or substance use (like alcohol).

Insomnia also varies in how long it lasts and how often it occurs:

1. Acute insomnia can last from one night to a few weeks.

2. Chronic insomnia lasts for a month or longer.

Insomnia can make you feel tired when you wake up. It can also cause problems during the day, such as tiredness, a lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, and irritability. If you’re experiencing symptoms of insomnia, it’s important to talk to a healthcare provider to identify potential causes and treatments.

Treatment of Insomnia

Sure, let’s discuss some common approaches for treating insomnia, a sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep, or cause you to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep:

1. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): This is often the first step in treatment. CBT for insomnia targets the thoughts and actions that can disrupt sleep. This therapy encourages good sleep habits and uses several methods to relieve sleep anxiety.

2. Medications: Doctors may prescribe certain types of pills for short-term or chronic insomnia which include sleep aids like Eszopiclone (Lunesta), Zolpidem (Ambien), and others. Some over-the-counter options include sleep aids that contain diphenhydramine or doxylamine succinate; although it is advisable to consult your physician before starting these medications.

3. Over-the-Counter supplements: Melatonin and valerian supplements are often used as sleep aids. They may help some people with insomnia, but their effectiveness varies.

4. Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a regular sleep schedule, creating a comfortable sleep environment, and avoiding stimulating activities before bed can greatly improve sleep quality. Regular physical activity and reduction of caffeine and alcohol can also help.

5. Alternative Treatments: Techniques like meditation, yoga, acupuncture, and relaxation exercises can also assist in improving sleep by decreasing anxiety and promoting calmness.

6. Treatment of underlying conditions: Insomnia is sometimes caused by underlying medical or mental health conditions, like depression, anxiety, or sleep apnea. Treating these can often resolve the insomnia.

Remember, the most effective treatment for insomnia will vary depending on the individual and the underlying cause of their insomnia. A healthcare provider can help guide the most suitable treatment strategy.

Medications commonly used for Insomnia

Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep, or cause you to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep. There are several medications that are commonly used to treat insomnia:

1. Benzodiazepines: This classification includes drugs like lorazepam (Ativan), alprazolam (Xanax), and temazepam (Restoril). These medications are known for their sedative, anti-anxiety, muscle-relaxing, and anticonvulsant properties.

2. Nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics: These are some of the most common drugs for short-term treatment of insomnia. They include zolpidem (Ambien), eszopiclone (Lunesta), and zaleplon (Sonata). These drugs act on the same key receptors in the brain as benzodiazepines but tend to have fewer side effects.

3. Antidepressants: Certain antidepressants, such as trazodone (Desyrel), mirtazapine (Remeron), and doxepin (Silenor), are used off-label for treating insomnia due to their sedating effects.

4. Antihistamines: Some antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and doxylamine (found in some Unisom products), are used because of their sedating effects.

5. Melatonin-receptor agonists: These include drugs like ramelteon (Rozerem) and tasimelteon (Hetlioz), and they work by targeting melatonin receptors in the brain to help regulate the sleep-wake cycle.

6. Orexin receptor antagonists: This newer class of drug, including suvorexant (Belsomra), blocks a neurotransmitter in the brain that promotes wakefulness, thus helping patients fall asleep and stay asleep.

Please note that each of the medications listed comes with its own possible side effects and risks. They should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Medications can only temporarily cure insomnia, and it’s usually better to treat the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes, behavior therapies, and sleep routines are often effective in managing insomnia.

Prevention of Insomnia

Sure, here are some recommended ways to prevent insomnia:

1. Maintain a Regular Sleep Schedule: Go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on your days off. This can help regulate your body’s internal clock.

2. Create a Restful Environment: Ensure your bedroom is dark, quiet, and cool. Consider using a fan or white noise machine to block out noise. Avoid using your bed for anything other than sleep or intimacy.

3. Limit Daytime Naps: Long naps during the day can interfere with night-time sleep. If you choose to nap during the day, limit it to about 10 to 20 minutes.

4. Regular Exercise: Physical activity can help promote better sleep, avoid exercising close to bedtime as it can interfere with your sleep.

Regular exercise

5. Manage Stress: Practicing relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation, and deep breathing can help you manage stress and enjoy a peaceful sleep.

6. Limit Stimulants: Reducing intake of caffeine and nicotine can improve sleep patterns.

7. Heavy Meals: Avoid heavy meals and beverages before going to bed as it might cause indigestion and frequent urination which might interfere with your sleep.

8. Establish a Bedtime Routine: Activities such as reading, taking a warm bath, or listening to soothing music can help you relax before going to bed.

9. Limit Electronic Usage Before Sleep: The blue light emitted by phones, tablets, computers, and TVs interfere with the production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin and can stimulate the brain.

10. Seek Medical Help: If your insomnia persists for a long-time (chronic insomnia) and it’s impacting your day-to-day life, it’s important to seek medical help. Your doctor can help find any possible underlying conditions that may be causing the insomnia.

Please remember that these are general tips, and what works may vary from person to person. Always consult with a healthcare professional for advice tailored to your specific circumstances.

FAQ’s about Insomnia

Insomnia is characterized by having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early in the morning, resulting in insufficient sleep or poor-quality sleep. Here are some FAQs about insomnia:

1. What causes insomnia?
Insomnia can be triggered by psychological issues like stress, anxiety, depression, etc. Other potential causes include certain medical conditions, medications, poor sleep habits, or a change in your environment or sleep schedule.

2. What are the types of insomnia?
Insomnia can be classified into two types: Primary Insomnia (when sleep problems aren’t associated with any other health conditions) and Secondary Insomnia (when sleep problems are caused due to health conditions like asthma, depression, heartburn, etc., or due to pain, medication, or substance abuse).

3. How is insomnia diagnosed?
Diagnosis involves a thorough medical history, a physical examination, and in some cases, a sleep study. A sleep diary for a couple of weeks might also be helpful, where you catalog your sleep routines, habits, and patterns.

4. What is the treatment for insomnia?
Treatment options range from changing harmful behaviors or poor sleep habits (behavioral therapy) to prescription sleep aids. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered very effective.

5. Can lifestyle changes help with insomnia?
Yes, maintaining good sleep hygiene can help, which includes sticking to a sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol close to bedtime, exercising regularly but not right before sleep, and making your sleep environment comfortable and dark.

6. How common is insomnia?
Insomnia is quite common. Millions of people around the world experience some form of insomnia at various points in their lives. It’s more common in adults, especially older adults, and has a higher prevalence among women.

7. Can insomnia be cured?
Yes, in many cases, insomnia can be cured. However, the treatment depends on the cause of insomnia. While some insomnias can be managed with lifestyle modifications, others may require medical attention.

Please consult with a healthcare provider if you experience trouble sleeping, as accurate diagnosis and treatment are essential in dealing with insomnia.

And List out useful links from journals for Insomnia

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that is characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or both. People with insomnia often feel dissatisfied with their sleep and often experience symptoms such as fatigue, low energy, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and decreased performance in work or school.

Here are a few relevant scholarly articles and journals related to the study and treatment of Insomnia:


Please remember, while these resources can provide incredibly useful information, they are not a substitute for seeking professional medical advice or treatment from a healthcare provider. If you believe you are suffering from insomnia or any other health condition, it is best to consult a doctor directly.

Complications of Insomnia

Insomnia is a sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep, or can cause you to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep. It can be both a short-term or long-term issue, and can occur every night or intermittently. This condition can lead to several complications, including:

1. Poor Performance and Reduced Quality of Life: Insomnia can significantly affect your energy level, mood, and health, impairing your ability to perform tasks efficiently and reducing your overall quality of life.

2. Mental Health Disorders: Insomnia can contribute to the development of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.

3. Physical Health Risks: Chronic insomnia can put you at higher risk for long-term diseases or conditions, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

4. Impaired Cognitive Function: Lack of quality sleep can impact your memory, concentration, and overall cognitive function.

5. Increased Risk of Accidents: Fatigue linked to insomnia can lead to a higher risk of accidents, including car accidents due to drowsy driving.

6. Weakened Immune System: Sleep helps the body repair and regenerate, and chronic sleep deprivation can weaken the immune system, making you more vulnerable to infections.

7. Weight Gain: Insomnia can also lead to weight gain, as it disrupts the balance of key hormones regulating appetite and metabolism.

It’s important to identify and treat insomnia and its underlying causes to prevent these potential complications. Speaking with a healthcare provider can provide more insight and assistance in managing this condition.

Home remedies of Insomnia

1. Maintain a Sleep Schedule: Your body follows an internal clock, also known as a circadian rhythm. Make sure you go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends, to help regulate your internal clock.

2. Limit Daytime Naps: Long daytime naps can interfere with your nighttime sleep. If you choose to nap, limit yourself to about 20 to 30 minutes and make it during the afternoon.

3. Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity can help you fall asleep faster and enjoy deeper sleep.

4. Limit Caffeine and Fluid Intake at Night: Avoid drinks high in caffeine, which can worsen insomnia, close to bedtime. Also, drinking lots of fluids at night can cause frequent awakenings to go to the toilet.

5. Comfortable Sleep Environment: Make sure your bedroom is quiet, dark, cool, and has a comfortable mattress and pillows.

6. Stress Management: Regularly practice stress-reducing activities, such as meditation, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or yoga.

7. Nutrition: Avoid large meals before bedtime. Try not to go to sleep hungry but pay attention to what you eat. Avoid refined carbohydrates and sugary foods before bedtime.

8. Natural Supplements: Certain supplements can encourage sleep, including melatonin, valerian root, magnesium, and lavender. Remember to consult your doctor before taking any new supplement.

Please, consult with a healthcare professional if your symptoms persist. Home remedies may help, but professional treatment might be necessary. You shouldn’t rely exclusively on home remedies if you have been diagnosed with insomnia. Your doctor should be aware of all treatments you’re using for insomnia.

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Sleep Disorders,

Last Update: January 3, 2024