Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a medical condition in which there is a problem with the functioning of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and receive signals, causing physical symptoms.

The root cause of FND is not from any damage or disease in the neurological system but instead from an issue with the “software” of the nervous system: the signals it sends and receives. Although the body’s nervous system is structurally normal, it doesn’t function properly.

Symptoms of FND can vary widely from person to person, but can often resemble those of other neurological disorders like stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. This can include weakness, tremors, seizures, difficulty walking, numbness, non-epileptic seizures, and difficulties with balance.


Psychotherapy and physical therapy are often used in treating FND. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can especially help patients understand and manage their symptoms. The condition is genuinely physical, but it stems from a software issue, not a hardware one, meaning that the structure of the body is intact but the way messages are being sent and received is malfunctioning.

The exact cause of FND is unknown, but it can be triggered by physical injury, severe emotional stress, or as a reaction to a significant illness. Health professionals diagnose FND based on the presence of its characteristic symptoms and after ruling out other neurological conditions. It is a valid and common condition that can cause significant distress and disability.

Causes of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder, also known as FND, is a medical condition in which there is a problem with the functioning of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and receive signals, causing neurological symptoms.

The exact causes of FND are still not fully understood and are likely to vary from person to person. However, in most cases, no structural neurologic abnormalities are found. Instead, factors that may contribute to FND can be broken down into three groups:

1. “Vulnerability factors” such as genetic predisposition or having a complex and significant history of psychological stress. This could include traumatic events, major life stressors, or a history of anxiety or depression.

2. “Precipitating factors” such as physical injury or illness, psychological or emotional stress or trauma.

3. “Perpetuating factors” which perpetuate the symptoms after their onset. These commonly include fear and worry about the symptoms, focusing too much on them, and avoiding activities due to worries about the symptoms.

The exact reasons why these factors lead to FND are not well understood. Some theories suggest that the body may be expressing stress or trauma in a physical way. Others propose that the brain may be stuck in a sort of ‘overdrive’ mode, leading to symptoms. Further research is needed to fully understand the causes of FND.

It is important to note that FND is a real and often disabling disorder. It is not ‘all in the head’, but rather, symptoms can be compared to a software problem in the body’s operating system. Treatment typically involves addressing the symptoms and helping the individual learn to manage them, often through physical therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and other forms of treatment.

Risk Factors of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND), also known as conversion disorder, is a complex neurological condition. The exact cause of FND is still not completely understood, however, many risk factors have been identified. These risk factors can be broadly categorized into biological factors, psychological factors, and environmental factors.

1. Biological Factors:
Genetic predisposition: People with a family history of FND are more likely to develop the condition.
Other neurological conditions: Having other neurological conditions such as migraines, epilepsy, or movement disorders can increase the risk of FND.
Gender: FND is more common in women than in men.

2. Psychological Factors:
Mental health conditions: People with a history of psychiatric disorders like depression, anxiety, or traumatic stress disorders are at an increased risk of FND.
Personality traits: Certain personality traits such as neuroticism, tendency to somatize, or high levels of health anxiety can predispose to FND.
History of sexual or physical abuse: A number of studies have shown a strong link between past sexual or physical abuse and FND.

3. Environmental Factors:
Stressful life events: Stressful life events or emotional trauma like grief, relationship breakup, or conflict can trigger the development of FND.
Physical injury or illness: FND can sometimes occur after a minor physical injury or illness, where the body’s response to the physical event goes wrong, resulting in the physical symptoms of FND.

It’s important to note that these risk factors do not guarantee the development of FND; they simply increase the likelihood. Understanding these risk factors can help in early detection and intervention. Nonetheless, a comprehensive approach involving neurological, psychological, and social considerations is necessary for the effective management of FND.

Signs and Symptoms of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND), previously known as Conversion Disorder, is a condition where patients experience physical neurological symptoms, but traditional structural neuroimaging studies frequently fail to reveal a clear neurological cause. The symptoms can be significantly distressing, often resembling serious neurological diseases, leading to difficulties in diagnosis and treatment.

Common signs and symptoms of FND can include:

1. Motor Problems: The person may exhibit a variety of movement disorders, including tremors, dystonia (sustained or intermittent muscle contractions), tics, gait problems (difficulty walking), or any uncontrolled body movement.

2. Weakness or Paralysis: Some individuals might struggle with partial or complete loss of muscle strength. This can lead to issues such as paralysis of the entire body or just a single limb or side of the body (hemiparesis).

3. Speech Issues: Speech difficulties might also present themselves in an individual with FND, manifesting as slurred, whispering, or even absent speech. This is often known as functional dysphonia or aphonia.

4. Sensory Disturbances: People with FND may experience altered or lost sensations. This can occur in almost any part of the body, causing numbness or a tingling sensation.

5. Seizures or Episodic symptoms: Some people experience seizures, blackouts, amnesia, or fluctuation in consciousness mimicking epilepsy, but are not related to epileptic activity in the brain (these are often referred to as dissociative or non-epileptic seizures).

6. Cognitive issues: Short-term memory and concentration problems are also frequent in FND.

It is crucial to remember that FND is a real condition and not a sign of malingering or ‘faking’. The symptoms are involuntary (out of the person’s control) and can cause significant distress. Furthermore, FND can coexist with other neurological diseases, making it even more challenging to diagnose and manage.

It’s necessary to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone else has symptoms of a functional neurological disorder. With professional evaluation and proper treatment, people with FND can improve or even have their symptoms resolve.

Diagnosis Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a medical condition in which there is a problem with the functioning of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and receive signals, so a person experiences symptoms that appear to be caused by a neurological problem such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis, or epilepsy. However, after conducting standard tests like an MRI, CT scan, or EEG, doctors do not find any physical neurological damage.

The symptoms of FND often resemble symptoms of established neurological diseases. Some common symptoms include episodes of loss of body function, such as paralysis; alteration of consciousness, such as non-epileptic seizures; sensory problems such as numbness; and cognitive problems such as memory difficulties.

With Functional Neurological Disorder, the brain’s normal mechanisms for controlling the body are not working properly, which can cause significant distress. Despite the physical manifestation of symptoms, FND is not caused by a structural disease of the nervous system, but rather is a reflection of the brain’s incapability to send and receive signals effectively.

Often, FND is influenced by mental health conditions like stress, anxiety, or depression, or a physical trauma. However, it is an independent condition that can occur separately, and it is not ‘all in the mind’ or imagined.

The treatment for FND typically involves physiotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sometimes medication, with aims towards improving the symptoms and patient’s coping mechanisms. Despite its challenges, many people with FND can improve or recover with the right treatment and support.

Treatment of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a complex neurological condition where patients experience physical symptoms that are not linked to a structural disease, but can be significantly disabling. These symptoms may include motor and sensory issues, functional seizures, and cognitive problems. The treatment of FND involves a multidimensional approach:

1. Psychological Therapies: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help patients understand and manage their symptoms. This form of therapy can provide tools for coping with the disorder and reduce anxiety levels, which may lessen the severity of symptoms.

2. Physiotherapy: For patients with motor symptoms like weakness or issues with movement, physiotherapy can be very beneficial. The goal is to improve movement patterns and physical function.

3. Occupational Therapy: This helps patients with tasks of everyday living, aiming to improve their functional independence and quality of life.

4. Medication: While there’s no specific medication for FND, drugs may be used to manage associated symptoms or comorbidities like anxiety, depression, or pain.

5. Education: It’s crucial for patients and their families to understand the disorder, its causes, and its treatment. There’s evidence showing that when people understand the nature of their symptoms, they’re more likely to benefit from treatment.

6. Neuropsychiatric and Psychosocial Support: This is important to address associated mental health conditions that might affect the prognosis of the condition, like depression, anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

7. Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: These techniques can help manage the stress and anxiety that can worsen FND symptoms.

8. Multidisciplinary Approach: It involves a team of healthcare providers including neurologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, physiotherapists, nurses, and social workers to provide comprehensive care.

Treatment for FND is tailored to individual patient’s needs and symptoms. The main goal of the treatment is to reduce symptoms, improve quality of life, and increase the capacity to function in daily activities. It is essential to have regular follow-up appointments to ensure that the treatment plan is working and modify as necessary.

Medications commonly used for Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) can be quite complicated to manage and often requires a multi-faceted approach. There is no specific medication that is used for FND as it often depends on what symptoms the person is experiencing. Here are some medications that might be used:

1. Antidepressants: Firstly, it’s important to understand that the use of antidepressants may not imply that the doctor thinks FND is a symptom of depression. Antidepressants, such as SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) like fluoxetine (Prozac) and SNRIs (Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) like venlafaxine (Effexor), are often used because they can help control a variety of FND symptoms. They can help modulate pain and improve sleep quality as well.

2. Anti-Epileptic Drugs: These medications, such as Lamotrigine or Gabapentin, are often used to control seizures in FND patients. They can also be helpful in managing pain and mood symptoms.

3. Antipsychotics: Medications like Quetiapine may be used in low doses to manage severe anxiety and improve sleep.

4. Sedatives: Some FND patients may have a high level of anxiety or sleep disturbances, in which case a sedative such as a benzodiazepine (like clonazepam or diazepam) may be prescribed. However, these must be used under close supervision due to their risk for dependency and withdrawal issues.

5. Beta-blockers: These can be prescribed to manage symptoms of tremors or shaking, as well as high heart rate and anxiety.


6. Physical Symptoms Management: Painkillers, muscle relaxants or other medications might be used to treat specific presenting symptoms such as migraines, chronic pain or dystonia.

It’s vital to note that the aforementioned drug classes are not typically used as first-line treatment for FND. They are often used in conjunction with other therapeutic interventions such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Each patient’s case is unique, and thus, medication use should be thoroughly discussed with a healthcare professional.

Prevention of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Though the exact cause is not always clear, Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is believed to stem from a problem with how the brain is “sending” or “receiving” signals. This means prevention can be difficult, but mitigating risk factors and taking certain steps can help.

1. Identify and Manage Stress, Anxiety, and Depression: These mental health conditions are often associated with FND. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), meditation, and other mindfulness practices can be helpful in managing these conditions.

2. Early Intervention: If symptoms emerge, seek immediate professional help. The earlier the intervention, the better the chances of managing the disorder effectively.

3. Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity may help strengthen the connections in the brain and assist in managing the symptoms of associated mood disorders.

4. Healthy Lifestyle: Maintaining a healthy lifestyle including balanced diet, adequate sleep and minimizing alcohol intake, can improve overall mental and physical health which may prevent the onset of such disorders.

5. Therapy: Trauma therapy is often beneficial if the disorder is associated with traumatic events.

6. Keep Regular Check-Ups: Regularly visiting a neurologist allows for early detection and prevention of potential problems.

Remember, prevention strategies might differ depending on individual’s health conditions and factors. It’s always advised to work with your healthcare provider to decide what measures will work best for you.

FAQ’s about Functional neurological disorder (FND)

1. What is Functional Neurological Disorder (FND)?
Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a medical condition where there is a problem with the functioning of the nervous system and how the brain and body send and receive signals.

2. What are the symptoms of FND?
Symptoms can vary greatly but often include problems with movement and function, such as tremors, gait problems, paralysis, seizures, speech issues, and sensory problems.

3. What causes FND?
The exact cause of FND is unknown. However, it is often linked to physical or psychological stress, traumatic events, or neurological conditions. It is not caused by damage to the structure of the brain, but rather how the brain functions.

4. How is FND diagnosed?
The diagnosis of FND usually involves a thorough evaluation by a neurologist and often includes neurological examinations, psychological assessments, and diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions.

5. Can FND be treated?
Yes, while there’s no cure, treatments often involve multidisciplinary approaches such as physical therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and medication management for associated symptoms.

6. Is FND life threatening?
While FND itself is not generally life threatening, it can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life. Some symptoms, like non-epileptic seizures, may require immediate medical attention though.

7. Can people with FND lead normal lives?
Yes, many people with FND can lead normal lives with the right treatment and management strategies. Each person’s recovery journey is unique, and the degree of improvement varies.

8. Is FND a form of mental illness?
FND is a neurological disorder, not a mental illness. However, it is a condition that is likely influenced by mental health, physical health, and life circumstances. It is very common for people with FND to also have a mood disorder, like depression or anxiety.

9. Is FND a rare condition?
FND is not rare. It is the second most common reason for a neurological outpatient visit after headache/migraine.

10. Can FND be cured?
While there’s no specific cure for FND yet, treatments can often effectively manage symptoms and improve function. Over time, some individuals may experience complete remission of symptoms.

Remember, if you have any more specific questions or need help identifying resources, don’t hesitate to ask!

Useful links

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a medical condition in which there’s a problem with the functioning of the nervous system and how the brain and body sends and receives signals, resulting in neurological symptoms. FND can encompass a wide range of neurological symptoms, such as motor or sensory problems, seizures, and speech issues. Research in this field are published in various medical journals.


Complications of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a complex, multifaceted condition that affects the functioning of your nervous system and can result in a variety of physical and cognitive impairments. Here are some potential complications associated with FND:

1. Physical Complications: Depending on the specific manifestations of FND, patients can experience a range of physical symptoms such as weakness, mobility disturbances, seizures, coordination problems, tremors and spasms, sensory disturbances, and speech problems. These symptoms can greatly impact a patient’s ability to carry out daily tasks.

2. Psychological Problems: Many people with FND also struggle with psychological conditions like depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These conditions can exacerbate FND symptoms, and vice versa.

3. Difficulties in Diagnosis and Treatment: One of the primary complications associated with FND is the difficulty in diagnosing and treating the disorder. Its symptoms often overlap with many other neurological and physical conditions, making it hard to pinpoint FND as the source.

4. Social and Occupational Implications: FND can affect a person’s ability to work or maintain usual routines. This could lead to financial struggles, isolation, strained relationships, loss of independence and lowered self-esteem.

5. Health Risks From Tests and Treatments: As FND can be difficult to diagnose, many individuals undergo extensive medical testing before receiving their final diagnosis. This places them at risk from the potential side effects of these tests and treatments.

6. Impact on Overall Health: FND can have impacts on a person’s overall health and well-being beyond the neurological symptoms. These can include overall decreased physical health, reduced cardiovascular fitness, and secondary health problems from a reduced level of physical activity.

It’s important to understand that FND is a serious and real condition, and not “all in the head”, even though it is influenced by the brain. Management under both a neurologist and a psychiatrist can be beneficial for a multi-faceted approach to healing.

Home remedies of Functional neurological disorder (FND)

Functional Neurological Disorder (FND) is a complex health issue and any form of treatment should always be under the supervision of a healthcare provider. However, there are a few supportive tactics that might help manage symptoms.

1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): While not a home remedy, per se, it is a non-pharmacological intervention that can be done from home in many cases. CBT can help you understand the disorder better and develop coping strategies.

2. Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Stress and anxiety may worsen FND symptoms. Practicing mindfulness meditation, deep-breathing exercises, and progressive muscle relaxation techniques may be beneficial.

3. Regular Exercise: Gentle exercise can help improve mobility, reduce stress, and manage symptoms such as weakness or movement disorders. This can include walking, swimming, or yoga.

4. Balanced Diet: Eat a balanced diet full of fruits, vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains to support overall health. While it won’t cure FND, it can help the body function optimally.

5. Good Sleep: Poor sleep can worsen symptoms, so establishing a good sleep routine is important. Avoid screens before bedtime, maintain a consistent sleep schedule, and make your sleep environment as comfortable as possible.

6. Support Network: Reach out to friends, family, or support groups for emotional help. Often, just feeling understood and supported is very therapeutic.

7. Self-Care: Take time each day to relax and do something you enjoy. This could be reading, listening to music, or any other hobby that helps you relax and take your mind off your symptoms.

Again, these are not cures for FND but may help manage the symptoms. Always consult with a healthcare provider for medical advice tailored to your specific condition.

Categorized in:

Nervous System,

Last Update: January 8, 2024