Fever in children refers to a temporary increase in body temperature, often due to an illness like a cold, the flu, or an infection. A fever is not a disease itself, but usually a sign that the body is trying to fight off some type of bacterial or viral infection. Normal body temperature for a child is around 36.4°C (97.5°F), but this can vary slightly. A fever usually occurs when the body temperature rises above 38°C (100.4°F).

Symptoms of a fever in children may include a higher than normal body temperature, chills, sweating, headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, rash, restlessness, and fatigue. In rare cases, a very high fever can lead to complications like febrile seizures. Fever in children can usually be treated at home with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter medications, but if a child’s fever is extremely high or persistent, medical attention may be required. Always consult a health professional if you have any concerns about your child’s health.

Fever in children

Causes of Fever in children

Fever in children can be caused by a number of factors:

1. Infection: This is the most common cause of fever in children. It could be a bacterial or viral infection. Examples can be a simple cold, ear infection, urinary tract infection, or more serious conditions like pneumonia or meningitis.

2. Vaccinations: Children may have a low-grade fever for a day or two after getting vaccinated. This is a normal reaction to the vaccine as the body is building immunity.

3. Overdressing: Infants, especially newborns, may get fevers if they’re over-bundled or in a hot environment because they can’t regulate their body temperature as well as older kids and adults.

4. Autoimmune or inflammatory disorders: Conditions such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can cause fever.

5. Medications: Some medications can cause fevers as a side effect.

6. Teething: While controversial, some doctors believe that teething can cause a slight rise in body temperature.

Remember, fever is not an illness but a symptom of an underlying condition. Always contact a healthcare professional if your child has a fever, especially if they’re very young, the fever is very high or accompanied by other disturbing symptoms.

Risk Factors of Fever in children

Fever in children can be due to various reasons including infections, autoimmune diseases, or reactions to certain medications. The risk factors for fever in children are:

1. Age: Infants are at higher risk of fever due to their immature immune system. They are yet to be exposed to many common germs, thus their body may react with a fever.

2. Immune System: If a child has a weakened immune system due to conditions such as cancer, anemia, and certain genetic disorders, they’re at a higher risk of developing a fever.

3. Vaccinations: Children can sometimes develop a fever after receiving a vaccination. This is a normal reaction and usually subsides within a couple of days.

4. Exposure to Infectious Diseases: Children who are exposed to infectious diseases, either at school, daycare, or at home, are at a higher risk of developing fever.

5. International travel: Traveling to and residing in certain countries can increase the risk of contracting infectious diseases thus developing fevers.

6. Lack of Routine Preventative Health Care: Children who do not receive regularly scheduled immunizations are at higher risk for fevers and associated complications from the diseases those vaccines prevent.

These risk factors don’t guarantee a child will develop a fever, rather they increase the likelihood. Always consult with a healthcare professional if your child has a persistent or unusually high fever as it could be a sign of a more serious condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Fever in children

Fever is a common symptom in children and can be a sign that the body is fighting an infection. Here are some signs and symptoms to recognize fever in children:

1. High temperature: A normal body temperature for a healthy child is about 36-37 degrees Celsius (97-98.6 degrees Fahrenheit), but this can vary slightly. A fever is generally agreed upon as a body temperature of at least 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) or higher.

2. Behavioral Changes: The child may seem more irritable or sleepy than usual. They may also seem less interested in playing or eating.

3. Appearance: The child may have a flushed appearance or be sweating more than usual.

4. Chills: The child may seem unusually chilly or even have shivering episodes. It’s the body’s reaction to feeling cold when the temperature starts to rise.

5. Headache, body aches, and weakness: The child might complain about aches all over their body.

6. Poor Feeding or decreased fluid intake: Younger children may feed poorly, due to lack of interest or discomfort. It’s important to keep them hydrated.

7. Rapid breathing or increased heart rate: These are secondary to the body’s effort at cooling itself down.

8. Seizures: These are rare but can occur in some children with high fevers and should be treated as an emergency.

Remember that very young infants may show more subtle signs such as slight changes in behavior, eating patterns, or color. Always consult a healthcare professional if you are concerned about your child’s health. It’s also important to note that the severity of fever does not always correlate with the severity of the illness — minor illnesses can cause a high fever, and serious illnesses might cause a minor fever or even no fever at all.

Diagnosis Fever in children

Fever in children refers to any temporary increase in body temperature, often due to an illness or infection. It is one of the most common symptoms in children. While it can be concerning for parents, fever itself is not harmful. Instead, it’s usually a sign that the body is fighting off some type of infection, whether it’s something minor like a common cold, or something more serious like an ear infection or urinary tract infection.

The normal body temperature for a child varies but is typically around 98.6°F (37°C). If a child’s rectal, ear, or forehead temperature is higher than 100.4°F (38°C), or if an oral temperature is over 100°F (37.8°C), it is typically considered a fever.

Symptoms may include warm forehead, body aches, poor appetite, dehydration, lethargy, and sweating. In some cases, children may also experience chills, flushed complexion, irritability, and restlessness.

If a child has a fever, it’s important to monitor their symptoms, make sure they stay hydrated, and seek medical help if the fever is very high, if the child seems particularly unwell, or if the fever lasts for more than 2-3 days.

If a child less than three months old gets a fever, you should seek immediate medical help as it may indicate a serious infection. In older children, if the fever lasts for more than 24 hours or if it’s accompanied by other symptoms such as severe headache, difficulty breathing, unusual drowsiness, or rash, it’s important to seek medical attention.

Treatment of Fever in children

When a child has a fever, it can be concerning, but it is often the body’s normal response to an infection. Here is a general guide to managing fever in children:

1. Evaluate the Child’s Behaviour: Assess the child’s behaviour first. If the child is active, drinking fluids, and appears well, the fever is typically less concerning.

2. Fever Medications: If the child is uncomfortable, acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) could be administered as per the directed dosage for the child’s weight and age. These medications can help to lower the fever and relieve any associated discomfort.

3. Hydration: Encourage the child to stay well hydrated. Good options are water and dehydration rehydration solutions like Pedialyte that can replace electrolytes as well.

4. Dress Lightly: Light clothing can help prevent the body temperature from rising.

5. Cool Sponge Bath: If the child is very uncomfortable, a lukewarm sponge bath or tub bath might help bring down the fever.

6. Rest: Make sure your child gets plenty of rest to help their body recover from whatever is causing the fever in the first place.

Note: At any point, if the fever doesn’t subside after a few days, the child is unable to keep liquids down, appears lethargic or irritable, has a rash, or has other severe symptoms (like difficulties in breathing), seek medical attention right away. Also, if an infant under 3 months develops a fever, do not give them medication and call the doctor promptly.

Remember, these are general recommendations and your child’s doctor’s advice should always be first and foremost.

Medications commonly used for Fever in children

Several types of medications are commonly used to manage fever in children:

1. Acetaminophen: Also known as Paracetamol or Tylenol, it is a very common medication given to children to reduce fever. It’s safe to use in kids, even younger ones, but the correct dosage according to the child’s weight is important.

2. Ibuprofen: Known also by brand names such as Advil or Motrin, Ibuprofen is another common choice for managing fever in children. It’s usually ok for use in children over 6 months, but again, the right dosage is essential.

3. Aspirin: It is rarely recommended for children under the age of 16 because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome, a severe condition affecting the liver and brain.

Fever Medicine

These are usually sufficient to control fever in children. It’s also essential that the child is kept well hydrated and watched for any severe symptoms such as convulsions which will need immediate medical attention. However, never give any medication to your child without prior consultation from a healthcare provider.

If the fever persists despite medication or is very high, it’s crucial to seek medical attention immediately as it could be a sign of a more serious infection.

Always consult with a medical professional or pediatrician for appropriate types and dosages of medicines, as they may vary based on the child’s age, weight, overall health, and the nature of their sickness.

Prevention of Fever in children

Preventing fever in children essentially involves maintaining a healthy lifestyle and taking precautions against infections. Here are some effective preventive measures:

1. Vaccination: One of the best ways to prevent fevers and serious illnesses is to ensure that your child is vaccinated according to the schedule recommended by their healthcare provider.

2. Hygiene: Teach your children about good hygiene such as washing their hands regularly, especially before eating, after using the toilet, and after coming in from outside.

3. Healthy Living: A balanced diet, regular exercise, and adequate sleep can strengthen your child’s immune system and prevent the onset of fever-causing diseases.

4. Prevent Infection Spread: It’s important to teach your children not to share personal items like toothbrushes, drinking glasses, or eating utensils. They also need to learn to cover their mouths and noses when coughing or sneezing.

5. Regular Check-ups: Regular medical check-ups can ensure your child’s health is monitored and any potential issues can be addressed before they cause a problem.

6. Protection Against Mosquitoes: If you live in a region where mosquito-borne diseases like malaria and dengue are common, ensuring your child is well-protected can prevent fevers associated with these diseases.

7. Avoid Contact with Sick Individuals: If someone in your household is sick, they should be isolated as much as possible to prevent spreading the illness to others, especially children who may have weaker immune systems.

Remember, it’s always better to prevent than to treat. Do consult a healthcare provider regularly to keep your child’s health screenings and vaccinations up to date.

FAQ’s about Fever in children

Sure. Here are some frequently asked questions about fever in children:

1. What is considered as a fever in children?
A: A fever is any body temperature rise above the normal range which is 98.6°F (37°C) in children.

2. What causes fever in children?
A: Fevers are often caused by viral or bacterial illnesses. Symptoms such as a runny nose, cough, sore throat, etc., usually indicates the body is fighting an infection.

3. When should I worry about my child’s fever?
A: Consult your doctor if your child is under 3 months and has a temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher. If your child is 3 to 6 months and has a temperature up to 102°F and appears unusually irritable, lethargic, or uncomfortable, you should also seek medical attention.

4. How can I reduce my child’s fever?
A: Over-the-counter drugs such as acetaminophen (for children older than 2 months) and ibuprofen (for children older than 6 months) can help lower fever. Also, ensuring your child is hydrated is vital. Dress them in light clothing and keep the room temperature comfortable, not too hot or too cold.

5. Are fevers dangerous?
A: Generally, fever itself is not dangerous and can be considered a good sign that your child’s immune system is working and fighting off an infection. However, it’s the underlying cause that might be more concerning.

6. What is a febrile seizure?
A: Some children can have seizures when they have a fever, known as febrile seizures. They’re usually harmless and occur in children ages 6 months through 5 years.

7. How is a fever diagnosed?
A: Fever is usually diagnosed using a thermometer. A rectal temperature is most accurate. Forehead and ear thermometers are also accurate if used properly.

8. Can a child go to school with a fever?
A: Most schools and daycare centers ask that children not return until they have been fever-free (without the help of fever-reducing medications) for at least 24 hours.

Please remember every child’s health condition may differ, so it’s best to consult a pediatrician if you’re concerned about your child’s fever or symptoms.

Useful links

Explaining Fever in Children:

Fever in children is usually a sign that their body is fighting infections. The fever stimulates the body’s defensive mechanisms to destroy the bacteria or viruses responsible for the infection. The most common causes of fever in children are common viruses like those that cause colds or gastroenteritis. In some rare cases, fever can be caused by more serious conditions like pneumonia, urinary tract infections, or meningitis.

Symptoms associated with fever in children may include feeling warmer than usual, sweating, shivering, headache, muscle aches, dehydration, and temporary loss of appetite.

Useful Links from Journals:

  1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25724501/
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35822579/

These are a few of many academic journals dedicated to pediatric health and fever in children. They contain valuable information and may provide some understanding of the causes, symptoms, treatments, and prevention measures for fever in children. Always consult a healthcare professional when a child has a fever.

Complications of Fever in children

Fever is a symptom of numerous underlying health conditions and in most cases, it’s a healthy response indicating that the body is fighting an infection. However, there can be complications that may arise in children including:

1. Febrile Seizures: The most common complication of fever in children is febrile seizures, which are convulsions that occur in a child with a high fever. It can be a terrifying experience for parents, but they typically don’t result in any long-term nervous system or brain damage.

2. Dehydration: Another common complication is dehydration. Fever can cause children to lose fluids more rapidly, which, if not timely compensated, can lead to dehydration causing chapped lips, dry mouth, fewer tears when crying, and less urination.

3. Hyperpyrexia: This is a condition characterized by an extremely high fever, typically above 106.7°F (41.5°C). This can potentially lead to brain damage, but this is rare.

4. Possible underlying severe conditions: Although rare, sometimes fever in children can be a sign of a more serious condition, like meningitis or a urinary tract infection. If the fever is persistent and high, and cannot be explained by a common illness like a cold or flu, it might need investigating.

5. Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke: This is more common in cases of heat fever (when the body is too hot due to the weather). The main complications are heat exhaustion or, in severe cases, heatstroke – potentially life-threatening.

6. Hallucinations: High fevers can sometimes cause hallucinations. This is more likely to occur in children under five.

7. Roseola: Though not a complication of fever, it’s worth mentioning that young children generally around 6 months to 2 years old can develop a condition called roseola, a viral infection that causes a fever and skin rash.

Proper medical attention is essential to avoid these complications, especially if the fever is persistent or accompanied by other serious symptoms.

Home remedies of Fever in children

Home remedies for children’s fever can bring down your child’s temperature and alleviate discomfort. It’s important to note that if your child’s fever is high, persists for more than a few days, or is accompanied by serious symptoms, you must consult a doctor immediately.

Here are few home remedies to manage fever in children:

1. Hydration: Fever can dehydrate your child. Ensure your child is drinking adequate fluids — water, fruit juice, homemade soup, or an oral rehydration solution.

2. Rest: A sick child needs more rest to recover. Encourage your child to sleep or take naps throughout the day.

3. Light Clothing: Overdressing your child can trap body heat and contribute to a high fever. Dress your child in light, comfortable clothing and use a light blanket if needed.

4. Cool Compress: Place a cool, damp washcloth on your child’s forehead while they rest. This can help bring down their temperature.

5. Baths: A lukewarm sponge bath or a regular bath can also help to reduce fever. Avoid using cold water, as this can lead to shivering, which can raise body temperature.

6. Mild Food: Give them easy-to-digest food like porridge and soup. Include fruits and vegetables rich in water content.

Remember to never give aspirin to children under 18 years old, due to the risk of Reye’s Syndrome. Always consult with a healthcare provider before administering any over-the-counter medications.

Please note that these remedies can aid in relieving minor fevers, if the symptoms persist or get severe, it’s recommended to consult a healthcare professional.

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Last Update: December 30, 2023