Endometriosis is a medical condition that occurs when the tissue similar to the type that normally grows inside the uterus, known as endometrium, begins to grow outside of it. This misplaced tissue can be found on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the outer surface of the uterus, or other organs in the pelvis. It is less commonly found in other areas of the body.

In endometriosis, the endometrial-like tissue acts as it normally would, it thickens, breaks down, and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. But because the tissue is outside the uterus, it has no way to exit the body, which can cause painful symptoms and potentially lead to other health issues.

Symptoms can range widely, with some women experiencing intense pain while others have no symptoms at all. The pain often correlates to the woman’s menstrual cycle, but not always. Other symptoms can include heavy periods, pain during or after sex, trouble getting pregnant (infertility), digestive problems, and fatigue.


Despite it being a common gynecological condition, it’s often misdiagnosed or overlooked, in part because the symptoms can mimic other disorders. There is currently no cure for endometriosis, but treatment options do exist to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. These can include hormone therapy, pain medications, and surgery. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended.

Causes of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus, (called “the endometrium”), is found outside the uterus, where it induces a chronic inflammatory reaction that may result in scar tissue. Below are some possible causes of this condition:

1. Retrograde Menstruation: The most accepted theory is Sampson’s Theory of Retrograde Menstruation. This suggests that during menstruation, some of the menstrual tissue backs up through the fallopian tubes into the abdomen, where it implants and grows.

2. Coelomic Metaplasia: This theory suggests that certain cells outside of the uterus may transform into endometrial cells due to certain stimuli or factors.

3. Immune System Disorder: It’s possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that’s outside the uterus.

4. Hormones: High levels of estrogen can promote endometriosis. Some research points to an excess of estrogen activity, either due to increased production or increased sensitivity to estrogen, as a contributing factor to endometriosis.

5. Surgery: For example, endometrial cells can be transported by a surgical instrument during surgery, typically after a cesarean section.

6. Genetics: Researchers believe that endometriosis may be passed down through genes, as it’s been found to run in families.

7. Lymphatic or Circulatory Spread: Some believe that the endometrial tissue may travel via blood vessels or the lymphatic system.

However, it’s important to note that there’s a lot we don’t know about what causes endometriosis, and it’s likely that many factors may contribute to the condition.

Risk Factors of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a disorder in which tissue similar to the tissue that forms the lining of the uterus — the endometrium — grows outside of the uterine cavity. The primary risk factors for developing endometriosis include:

1. Family History: Women who have a close relative (such as a mother or sister) with endometriosis are more likely to develop the condition themselves.

2. Menstrual Factors: Certain menstrual factors may increase the odds of developing endometriosis, such as having shorter menstrual cycles, heavier and longer periods, or having your first period at a young age.

3. Never Giving Birth: Women who have never had children may be more likely to develop endometriosis, possibly due to alterations in hormones during pregnancy.

4. Age: While endometriosis can affect any woman of reproductive age, it is most commonly diagnosed in women in their 30s and 40s.

5. Health History: Women who have had certain infections, medical conditions (including autoimmune disorders), or surgeries may also be at a higher risk.

6. Reproductive tract abnormalities: Women born with certain abnormal structures in the reproductive tract may have a higher risk of endometriosis.

7. Immune system disorders: Problems with the immune system can prevent the body from recognizing and destroying endometrial tissue that’s growing outside the uterus.

It is important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not guarantee that a woman will develop endometriosis, just as a woman without any of these risk factors can still develop the condition. If you have concerns about endometriosis, you should consult with a healthcare provider for diagnosis and treatment options.

Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining inside the uterus begins to grow outside of the uterus, typically on other structures in the pelvic area such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes or the bladder. However, it’s not limited to these areas and can occur anywhere in the body.

The signs and symptoms of endometriosis can vary greatly, but may include:

1. Pelvic Pain: This is the most common symptom, which can be severe especially during menstruation.

2. Menstrual Irregularities: This may include heavy periods or bleeding between periods.

3. Pain During Intercourse: Some women with endometriosis experience deep pain during or after sexual intercourse.

4. Painful Bowel Movements or Pain During Urination: This often occurs during periods.

5. Difficulties Getting Pregnant: Endometriosis can cause fertility issues.

6. Digestive Problems: Bloating, diarrhea, constipation, and nausea, especially during menstrual periods.

7. Fatigue: Many women with the disease report experiencing ongoing fatigue.

8. Pain and Discomfort in the Lower Back: This pain can sometimes be intense and persistent.

9. Emotional Distress: This can include depression and anxiety due to living with chronic pain.

Keep in mind that the severity of endometriosis doesn’t always correlate with the level of pain an individual may experience. Some women with severe endometriosis may have little pain, while others with a milder form of the disease may have severe pain or even other serious symptoms. Because endometriosis shares symptoms with other conditions, it’s always important to seek medical evaluation if you suspect you have this condition.

Diagnosis Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, grows outside the uterus. This abnormal growth can occur in different parts of the body, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissue lining the pelvis, but rarely beyond pelvic organs.

The diagnosis of endometriosis is often challenging because its symptoms can mimic other conditions, and no straightforward non-invasive test is currently available.

Usually, specialists suspect endometriosis based on symptoms like severe menstrual cramps, long-term lower back and pelvic pain, periods lasting longer than seven days, heavy menstrual bleeding where the pad or tampon needs changing every one to two hours, bowel and urinary disorders including pain, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating, especially during menstrual periods.

Confirming the diagnosis, however, usually requires a minimally invasive surgical procedure called laparoscopy. During laparoscopy, the doctor induces a state of unconsciousness with anesthesia, makes a small incision near the navel, and inserts a tube carrying a light and a camera to observe any potential endometrial growth outside the uterus.

Sometimes diagnosis can also be supported by imaging tests, such as ultrasounds and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can provide detailed images of the inside of the body, although these methods cannot definitively confirm the presence of endometriosis.

After gathering all the information from the patient’s medical history, physical examination, and laparoscopy, a doctor can make a confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis.

Treatment of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, which can cause significant pain and potentially lead to infertility. While there’s currently no cure for it, several treatment options can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

1. Pain Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers can alleviate mild symptoms. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen may be recommended.

2. Hormonal Therapy: This aims to control the hormones that stimulate the growth of endometrial tissue. It may involve taking contraceptives (oral, injection, or patches), progestin-only contraceptives, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists.

3. Conservative Surgery: For women who still want to get pregnant, doctors may recommend laparoscopy or laparotomy to remove as much endometriosis as possible while preserving the uterus and ovaries.

4. Hysterectomy: In severe cases, surgery to remove the uterus and possibly the ovaries might be an option. This is typically considered a last resort for treatment.

5. Assisted reproductive technologies: If endometriosis has caused fertility problems, treatments such as in vitro fertilization may help a woman to become pregnant.

6. Lifestyle Changes: Regular exercise and a balanced diet can help manage symptoms and maintain a healthy body weight. Some women find that reducing stress can help alleviate some endometriosis symptoms.

7. Physical Therapy: Non-drug treatments like heat therapy and TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) can alleviate the pain related to endometriosis.

Remember, treatment options depend on several factors, including symptom severity, the desire for pregnancy, the patient’s age, and her personal preferences. Therefore, it’s crucial to have open and continuous conversations with healthcare providers to find the best treatment path.

Medications commonly used for Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus is found outside of the uterus. There are several medications commonly used to address the symptoms (pain and infertility), halt the progression of the disease, and/or reduce the size of the endometriosis implants. Here are some of them:

1. Pain Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or naproxen can be used to manage the discomfort associated with endometriosis.

2. Hormonal Contraceptives: Birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings help control the hormones that cause the buildup of endometrial tissue each month. These can be beneficial in reducing or eliminating the pain of mild to moderate endometriosis.

3. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonists and Antagonists: These drugs block production of ovarian-stimulating hormones, lowering estrogen levels and preventing menstruation. This causes the endometriosis lesions to shrink, but can also induce menopausal side effects.

4. Progestin Therapy: Progestin, a hormone, can halt menstrual periods and the growth of endometrial implants, which can relieve endometriosis signs and symptoms.

5. Danazol: It suppresses the growth of the endometrium by blocking the production of estrogen and other hormones, therefore relieving symptoms.

6. Aromatase inhibitors: These drugs reduce the production of estrogen in the body, slowing the growth of endometriosis.

7. Elagolix (Orlissa): This is a GnRH antagonist that’s taken as a daily pill. It can reduce pain by lowering estrogen levels, but it has some menopause-like side effects.

It’s important to note that most of these medications do not cure endometriosis, and symptoms can return after the treatment is stopped. Also, some of these treatments can impact fertility. Always consult with a healthcare provider for an appropriate treatment plan customized to your condition and fertility plan.

Prevention of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a medical condition where tissue similar to the uterus lining grows outside of your uterus, such as on your ovaries, bowel or tissues lining your pelvis. The actual cause of endometriosis is not completely clear, and as such, it may be difficult to prevent. However, there are various things that can be done to lower the risks and manage symptoms. Here are some strategies:

1. Hormonal Contraceptives: Birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings can help to control the hormones responsible for the formation of endometrial tissue each menstrual cycle. These can reduce or even eliminate the pain of endometriosis.

2. Maintaining a Low Body Mass Index (BMI): Maintaining a healthy weight can reduce the risk of endometriosis. Exercise along with a balanced diet remains the most effective way to achieve a healthy BMI.

3. Avoiding Alcohol and Caffeine: Both are believed to increase the risk of endometriosis, reducing their consumption can possibly help in prevention.

4. Regular Exercise: Regular physical activity may also provide a protective effect against endometriosis by lowering the amount of estrogen in the body.


5. Pain Medication: Non-prescription pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve) could be taken to help ease painful menstrual cramps.

It’s always recommended to have regular check-ups with your healthcare provider and discuss any concerns you may have to identify any potential issues in their early stages.

FAQ’s about Endometriosis

1. What is endometriosis?
Endometriosis is a disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus (endometrium) grows outside of the uterus.

2. What are the symptoms?
Some women may not experience any symptoms, while others may have severe pain, heavy periods, painful intercourse, and infertility.

3. What causes endometriosis?
It’s not certain what causes endometriosis. However, possibilities include retrograde menstruation, immune system disorder, peritoneal cell transformation or embryonic cell transformation, and surgical scar implementation.

4. Who does it affect?
Endometriosis typically affects women in their reproductive years and may lessen after menopause.

5. How is endometriosis diagnosed?
Endometriosis is diagnosed through a detailed medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and/or a surgical procedure called a laparoscopy.

6. What are the treatment options?
Treatments for endometriosis include pain medication, hormone therapy, conservative surgery, and in severe cases, total hysterectomy.

7. Can endometriosis lead to cancer?
Women with endometriosis slightly increase their risk of developing particular types of ovarian cancer; however, the overall lifetime risk is low.

8. Can endometriosis cause infertility?
Yes, endometriosis can interfere with egg implantation and contribute to a higher risk of ectopic pregnancy, which could lead to infertility.

9. Can diet and lifestyle changes help manage symptoms?
Exercise, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep can help manage symptoms. Avoiding caffeine and alcohol can also relieve symptoms.

10. Is there a cure for endometriosis?
While there’s no cure for endometriosis, symptoms can be treated and managed effectively.

11. What’s the prognosis for most patients?
With proper treatment and management, most patients can lead fulfilling lives. Early detection can also increase the effectiveness of treatment.

Remember, it’s always critical to speak to a healthcare provider to discuss any concerns or symptoms related to endometriosis.

And List out useful links from journals for Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a painful disorder where tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus, the endometrium, grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the tissue lining your pelvis.

Here are some useful links from reputable journals about Endometriosis. However, some articles might be behind a paywall:

  1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36427994/
  2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25408753/

Please consult with healthcare professionals about the details of the disease.

Complications of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a medical condition where tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus, the endometrium, grows on the outside of the uterus, typically on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and tissue lining the pelvis. Though endometriosis primarily affects women in their reproductive years, it can occur at any age after menstruation starts. Below are some of its complications:

1. Infertility: Endometriosis is a major cause of infertility. The abnormal tissue growth can obstruct the fallopian tubes or disrupt the implantation of a fertilised egg. Up to half of the women with endometriosis experience difficulties getting pregnant.

2. Pelvic Pain: The most common symptom is pelvic pain, which may coincide with menstruation (but can occur at any point in the menstrual cycle) and can interfere with daily activities. This happens because the tissue growing outside the uterus also thickens, breaks down and bleeds in response to the menstrual cycle, but it has no way to leave the body, causing irritation and eventually pain.

3. Ovarian Cysts: Over time, the cyclic bleeding and inflammation can lead to the formation of cysts, known as endometriomas, on the ovaries. In some cases, these cysts may rupture causing severe pain and internal bleeding.

4. Development of Adhesions and Scar Tissue: The body may form bands of scar tissue (adhesions) in response to the inflammation produced by endometriosis. These adhesions can bind organs together and disrupt their function.

5. Bowel and Urinary Tract Complications: If endometriosis tissue grows on or infiltrates the bowel or urinary tract, it can cause painful bowel movements, diarrhea, constipation, or frequent need to urinate.

6. Mental Health Issues: Living with chronic pain and fertility problems can have a significant psychological impact, leading to depression, anxiety, and reduced quality of life.

7. Risk of Cancer: Though rare, endometriosis is linked to a slightly increased risk of certain types of ovarian cancer.

Remember that treatment options can greatly reduce these complications and improve the quality of life for women suffering from endometriosis.

Home remedies of Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a chronic and often painful condition where the tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus grows outside your uterus. It typically involves the ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis and requires medical treatment. However, several lifestyle changes and home remedies can help manage the symptoms. Please remember these suggestions are not replacements for medical advice:

1. Healthy diet: Maintaining a balanced diet is crucial. Foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids like fish, walnuts, and flaxseed can reduce inflammation. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins also promote overall health.

2. Regular exercise: Regular physical activity can help reduce pain and improve general well-being. Exercise can also help maintain a healthy body weight which is beneficial in managing endometriosis.

3. Over-the-counter pain relievers: Non-prescription pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or naproxen sodium (Aleve) can help reduce menstrual pain.

4. Heat therapy: Applying a heating pad or hot water bottle to the lower abdomen can often help reduce pain.

5. Relaxation techniques: Deep relaxation techniques such as yoga, meditation, and mindfulness can help ease the pain and stress induced by the condition.

6. Herbal treatments: Some herbs such as chaste tree (Vitex Agnus-castus) and evening primrose oil may help with endometriosis symptoms. Make sure to consult a healthcare professional before starting any herbal treatments.

7. Limiting caffeine and alcohol: These substances can increase estrogen levels and may exacerbate endometriosis symptoms.

Lastly, social and emotional support from friends, family, or endometriosis support groups can also be very beneficial.

Always consult with a healthcare provider about your symptoms and the best treatment plan for you.

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Women's Health,

Last Update: January 5, 2024