In biology, immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to prevent microbial invasion into the body. A bacterium may invade and infect a host cell, but is unable to replicate effectively within the host.
These cells, termed a replicator, can transfer the bacterium’s genetic material to another cell. Typically, a protective immune system is initiated by macrophages, which engulf the invader and transfer the foreign DNA into a lysed vacuole.
Once the intracellular bacteria are in a stable state, the vacuole is rapidly emptied into the medium.
The invasive process is terminated and the tissue is kept free from microbes.
An immune system is a set of specialized cells of an organism that interact with pathogens or parasites to prevent or remove the entry of foreign substances and bacterial toxins into the organism.
The most important group of immune cells are lymphocytes. Lymphocytes act by releasing small particles of cell wall components called cytokines. These cytokines act as signals to recruit other immune cells to destroy the invader.
Lymphocytes also react to viral DNA by displaying specific antibodies, which specifically recognize and attack the virus.
Bacterial infection is treated by killing the pathogen
This can be achieved with one of several types of antimicrobial agents (antibiotics). Alternatively, it may be treated using a combination of antimicrobial agents.
Antibiotics are active substances that kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms by killing them or inhibiting their ability to reproduce. They target specific parts of the bacterial cell, so that it is unable to grow and reproduce.
The ability to kill or inhibit the growth of a microorganism can be assessed by their activity against a standard microbial species, and the bacterial species that have the highest activity are defined as the “resistant” species.
Antibiotics are classified by the mechanism of action; such agents are known as antibiotics. Examples of antibiotics include cephalosporins, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin.
It is your key to living a longer life. If you are trying to avoid certain cold and flu virus strains you are best off avoiding people who are sick, and having frequent handwashing and staying hydrated. All your fluids should be rich with water and not carbonated beverages.
- Avoid contact with sick people.
- Wash your hands frequently.
If you have an ongoing illness, like the flu, use non-caffeinated cough and cold medicines. Cough medicines with caffeine will only shorten your cold and flu symptoms.
Wear a surgical mask when you go out, to prevent the spread of germs.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. This is a way to fight back against the flu virus.
Contact with Surfaces
Avoid contact with surfaces that are covered with germs, such as doorknobs, keyboards, phones, touchscreens and the like.
If you are Sick: Stay at Home
Stay home when you are sick. You should stay home from work if you are sick with a fever of over 100 F, except to get to a doctor or to receive care.
Take care of Children
If you have children, keep them home from daycare as well. Children can spread their colds and flu germs easily.
You are inhaling the same germs you come into contact with at work. Smoking is bad for your lungs.
Meditation can be very helpful. Yoga and meditation also improve your immune system.
Learn to soothe yourself
Eating a balanced diet of fruits and vegetables and eating several small meals a day can improve your immune system. Take a daily multivitamin with your meals.
Here are the Ways to Boost your Immune System:
Indoor Air Quality
Long-term exposure to indoor pollutants may have a negative impact on your immune system. These pollutants may hamper your performance in the gym. Long-term exposure to air pollutants may also lead to oral, lung and respiratory infections. The smoke or fumes from a smelly gas can cause nausea and vomiting. Certain airborne bacteria may cause diarrhea, upset stomach and inflammation of the intestine. Indoor air can also be contaminated by chemicals like chlorine, ammonia and formaldehyde.
Get rid of dust and bacteria by cleaning frequently with a vacuum cleaner. Ensure that the surfaces you touch are clean and dry. Eliminate airborne pathogens by regularly vacuuming the floors, counters, shelves and furniture with a HEPA-filtered vacuum cleaner or dust mop.
It is now known that the vitamin D you get from the sunlight acts as a natural anti-inflammatory. According to studies, it is a powerful antioxidant that fights damage to your immune system. Low levels of vitamin D are linked to various health conditions like arthritis, asthma, osteoporosis, obesity and depression. Make sure you get your vitamin D by spending at least 15 to 30 minutes in the sunlight. You can also try vitamin D supplements.
A good diet rich in vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E can help you keep a check on your immunity. Try to eat vitamin-rich foods like apricots, strawberries, leafy greens, cabbage, kale, spinach, spinach, beans, peaches, nectarines, citrus fruits, tomatoes, broccoli, soy products and fortified cereals. Avoid eating high-fat and high-salt food as it can lead to inflammation of the liver and pancreas.
Aloe vera gel has been reported to be an excellent way to boost your immune system. It is a great way to fight the harmful effects of airborne bacteria and viruses. Aloe vera contains naturally-occurring compounds that strengthen the immune system and reduce inflammation and stress. Also, aloe vera can be used as an alternative to aspirin.
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Researchers have discovered that the omega 3 fatty acids found in salmon and flaxseeds can effectively boost your immune system. These fatty acids, which are also present in olive oil, help to improve blood circulation and reduce stress.
Turmeric contains curcumin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial compound that can help to strengthen the immune system. Curcumin helps kill the free radicals responsible for most of the health issues associated with ageing.
Have a rest day
Though the reason for this recommendation is unknown, it is said that a lack of sleep and stress can cause a major effect on your immune system and therefore should be addressed.