The intricate relationship between parents and their children manifests not only through observable traits and behaviors but also through the subtler internal cues of bodily sensations such as hunger and thirst. A recent study published in the journal ‘Appetite’ delves into this complex biological and psychological interplay, offering fresh insights into our understanding of interoception—the internal perceptions governing physical states like hunger and thirst. This in-depth article will explore the groundbreaking findings of the study, its implications for our grasp of human interoceptive processes, and the potential influence of parental roles on shaping these internal sensations.

The extensive research led by Richard J. Stevenson and his team from Macquarie University aimed to decode the similarities between parents and their offspring concerning how they experience hunger and thirst. The study, titled “Parent-offspring similarity in hunger and thirst sensations,” was published with DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2024.107208. It stands as a testament to the probable genetic and environmental factors that contribute to interoceptive variabilities. The researchers theorized that due to these factors, parents and their children might share similar patterns of hunger and thirst sensations—more so than two unrelated individuals.

Conducted on a sample of 170 students and their primary care providers from childhood, the research involved participants completing an elaborate online survey. This survey assessed hunger and thirst sensations, beliefs concerning the causes of these sensations, responses to the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (revised), and demographic data.

Findings and Implications

The study’s findings revealed a robust similarity in interoceptive sensations related to hunger and thirst between students and their caregivers. These similarities exhibited medium effect sizes, suggesting a significant influence beyond mere chance. Notably, the study unearthed that caregivers’ beliefs about the homeostatic nature of hunger and thirst played a moderating role.

The researchers have opened a new frontier by demonstrating that thirst, like hunger, is multidimensional in nature and showcases variation among different individuals. The implications of these findings are profound as they suggest that not only genetic factors but also learned behaviors and beliefs can shape one’s interoceptive awareness and experiences.

The research pioneers a conversation around the potential developmental role that caregivers play in nurturing their offspring’s cues for recognizing hunger and thirst. It opens up new pathways for understanding eating and drinking behaviors and, by extension, could influence approaches to nutritional education and the management of eating disorders.

Copyright © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Implications for Health and Diet

The evidence of inherited and learned patterns of interoceptive hunger and thirst sensations could affect how we approach diet and health education. It paves the way for personalized nutritional strategies that consider an individual’s unique interoceptive experiences. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of early life experiences and parental influence on the development of healthy eating and drinking habits among children.

Research Context

This study sits within a broader context of research around interoceptive awareness and the genetic and environmental components of physical sensations. Previous studies have shown that our ability to perceive internal states like satiety, heartbeat, or respiratory distress can influence our health and well-being. This latest research adds a new layer of understanding by highlighting the parent-offspring dynamic in these interoceptive processes.


Stevenson and colleagues’ exploration of hunger and thirst similarities between parents and their children is a remarkable addition to our comprehension of human physiology and psychology. It not only fosters a better understanding of the individual differences in these sensations but also explores the heritable and learned influences that mold such experiences.


1. Stevenson, R. J., Martin-Rivera, D., Dixon, G., & Francis, H. M. (2024). Parent-offspring similarity in hunger and thirst sensations. Appetite, 195, 107208. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2024.107208
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1. Interoceptive hunger and thirst
2. Parent-offspring similarity
3. Hunger and thirst sensations
4. Heritable interoception
5. Three Factor Eating Questionnaire