Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a type of coronavirus. It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.

People infected with COVID-19 can experience mild to severe respiratory illness. Symptoms can include fever, dry cough, loss of taste or smell, difficulty breathing, and fatigue. In severe cases, the disease can cause pneumonia and other severe complications that can be fatal.

COVID-19 is primarily spread through tiny droplets released when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. It can also spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes.


To prevent the spread of the virus, it’s encouraged to wash hands frequently with soap and water or use hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, wear a mask in public spaces and maintain social distance. Vaccines are also now available and can greatly decrease the risk of severe disease and hospitalization.

It’s worth noting that information about COVID-19 is still evolving as scientists continue to study the virus.

Causes of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and hadn’t been identified in humans before. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

The exact source of COVID-19 is still under investigation, but it’s believed to have originated in bats and was then transmitted to another animal species, which subsequently transmitted the virus to humans. This animal-to-human transmission was likely facilitated at a seafood market in Wuhan, China, which also traded in live wildlife.

The transmission of COVID-19 between humans occurs through respiratory droplets expelled from a person infected with the virus, particularly when they cough, sneeze, or speak. These droplets can land on objects and surfaces, and other people may contract the virus by touching these objects or surfaces then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. COVID-19 can also be caught by breathing in droplets from a person with COVID-19 who is in close proximity.

It’s also important to note that those with COVID-19 can be contagious even if they do not show symptoms, which can contribute to the spread of the virus. The development and distribution of vaccines for COVID-19 has become a significant global effort aimed at controlling the spread of the virus.

Risk Factors of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

1. Age: The risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19 increases with age, with older adults (60+) at higher risk.

2. Underlying health conditions: People with underlying health conditions are at a greater risk. These conditions include but are not limited to cancer, chronic kidney disease, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), heart conditions, immune deficiencies, obesity, sickle cell disease, and type 2 diabetes.

3. Smoking: Current and former smokers may be at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19.

4. Immunocompromised individuals: People who are immunocompromised, such as those receiving treatment for cancer, bone marrow or organ transplant recipients, HIV or AIDS patients, and some genetic disorders, have a higher risk.

5. Living conditions: Places with high concentration of people such as nursing homes or long-term care facilities can contribute to the spread and contraction of the virus.

6. Occupational risk: Certain occupations, such as healthcare worker or frontline workers, are at a higher risk due to increased exposure to the virus.

7. Travel: Those who travel frequently or recently have been to places with a high number of COVID-19 cases are at a higher risk.

8. Lack of vaccination: Unvaccinated people are at a much higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and developing severe illness, hospitalization, and death from the disease compared to those who are fully vaccinated.

Note: This is not an exhaustive list and getting vaccinated, practicing social distancing, frequent hand washing, and wearing a mask are key preventive measures to reduce the risk of getting COVID-19. Always consult your healthcare provider for medical advice.

Signs and Symptoms of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

COVID-19 symptoms can vary widely, which means someone can be infected without showing symptoms (asymptomatic) to being severely ill. The following symptoms often appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus:

1. Fever or chills: This is one of the most common symptoms. Body temperature rises as it attempts to fight off the virus.

2. Cough: Primarily a dry cough, although some people may also cough up mucus.

3. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing: Even mild cases can experience some breathing problems, but in severe cases, this can escalate to pneumonia or a severe acute respiratory syndrome.

4. Fatigue: Feeling unusually tired or weak.

5. Muscle or body aches: Generalized discomfort, soreness, or aches throughout the body.

6. New loss of taste or smell: Many individuals infected with COVID-19 suddenly lose their sense of taste and smell.

7. Sore throat: Along with a cough, some people might have a sore throat.

8. Congestion or runny nose

9. Nausea or vomiting and diarrhoea: Some people may experience digestive issues.

10. Headaches

Less common symptoms can include a rash on skin, or discoloration of fingers or toes.

In severe cases, emergency warning signs can occur, including:
1. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
2. New confusion
3. Inability to wake or stay awake
4. Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
5. Bluish lips or face

This is not a complete list of possible symptoms, and it’s crucial to seek immediate medical attention if you’re experiencing severe symptoms. Even mild symptoms should be monitored closely as they can quickly become severe. Please note that while a person of any age can contract and transmit the virus, the risk of severe illness and death increases with age and in people with existing health problems.

Finally, always follow the guidance of health professionals to minimize your exposure risk to the virus and prevent its spread, including vaccination, social distancing, mask wearing, and regular hand hygiene.

Diagnosis Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and then it spread globally, leading to the ongoing pandemic.

Diagnosis of COVID-19 is determined by health professionals who consider symptoms and exposures first, often then followed by laboratory testing to confirm the existence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Symptoms related to COVID-19 include fever, cough, and difficulty breathing, though some may be asymptomatic or develop flu-like symptoms.

There are three types of tests available for COVID-19 diagnosis:

1. Molecular tests (also called PCR tests): This is the most common testing method. It detects the genetic material of the virus using a lab technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This test is typically highly accurate and usually does not need to be repeated.

2. Antigen tests: This test detects proteins from the virus and is faster but not as accurate as the molecular test. Positives are usually highly accurate, but there is a higher chance of false negatives, so negative results may need to be confirmed with a molecular test.

3. Antibody tests: This is a blood test that looks for antibodies in your blood to determine if you had a past infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. This test is not used to diagnose a current infection.

To conduct these tests, healthcare providers will collect fluid samples from the nose, throat, or lungs, and send them to a lab for testing. In some cases, a blood sample may be required.

It’s important to remember that even with testing, the best method of avoiding COVID-19 is through preventive measures such as good hand hygiene, wearing masks, and maintaining physical distance from others.

Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

As of now, there isn’t a specific, proven treatment for the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). However, many of the symptoms can be treated and therefore, treatment is based on the patient’s condition. The line of treatment often involves:

1. Supportive Care: It means providing relief to symptoms the patient is experiencing. such as cough syrup or medication, rest and fluid intake for someone with a fever.

2. Respiratory Illness Management: Serious cases of COVID-19 can involve severe respiratory illness, therefore, supportive care in a hospital setting can be essential. Oxygen therapy, non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation may be used.

3. Vaccination: Vaccines for COVID-19 are available in many countries and has shown to significantly reduce the severity of the disease. The vaccines stimulate a person’s immune system to recognize the virus and respond more effectively if a person encounters the real virus.

4. Anti-viral or other drug therapies: Some drugs have been suggested to have benefits in treating COVID-19, but their efficacy is still under research. For some patients with severe Covid-19, the antiviral drug Remdesivir or steroids such as Dexamethasone are used.

5. Convalescent Plasma Therapy: This therapy uses blood from people who’ve recovered from COVID-19 and has antibodies to the virus treatment can help patients with severe COVID-19 to boost their ability to fight the virus.

6. Prone Positioning: For hospitalized patients with severe respiratory symptoms, this maneuver, which involves switching the patient’s position to lay on the belly, has shown benefits in oxygenation.

Remember, the best line of defense against COVID-19 is prevention. This includes measures like wearing masks, practicing social distancing, hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, and getting vaccinated.

If someone suspects they have symptoms of COVID-19, it is important that they seek medical attention as soon as possible. Doctors and healthcare providers can provide the best guidance on the course of treatment based on symptoms and severity of disease.

Medications commonly used for Coronavirus (COVID-19)

It’s important to note that the treatment of COVID-19 is a rapidly developing area with new evidence emerging almost every day. Here is some information on the common forms of medication used for COVID-19:

1. Remdesivir: This is an antiviral medication originally developed to treat Ebola. It has been shown in laboratory tests to be effective against the virus that causes COVID-19. It inhibits the reproduction of the virus and may shorten the length of illness.

2. Dexamethasone: This is a type of corticosteroid medication that is used to reduce inflammation in the lungs and reduce the activity of the immune system. It is often used for severe cases of COVID-19 where the patient is in the hospital and receiving supplemental oxygen.

3. Monoclonal antibodies such as Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab: These are laboratory-made proteins that mimic the immune system’s ability to fight off harmful pathogens such as viruses. They are specifically directed against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, designed to block the virus’ attachment and entry into human cells.

4. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: These were initially used to treat or prevent malaria and were later used early in the pandemic. However, after many clinical trials, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a caution against using these medications for COVID-19 outside of a hospital setting or clinical trial due to the risk of heart rhythm problems.

5. Convalescent plasma: This is taken from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and theoretically should be rich in antibodies against the virus.

6. Ivermectin: This is a prescribed drug used to treat parasitic infections. There is currently limited data to recommend this drug for the treatment of COVID-19.

7. Favipiravir: An antiviral drug, being studied in various countries as possible treatment of COVID-19.

Please remember to seek advice from healthcare professionals to understand what is safe and effective, including vaccination. You should not self-medicate or make decisions about your health based on what you read online without consulting a health professional.

Prevention of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

The following are the key recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for preventing the spread of COVID-19:

1. Hand hygiene: Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after being in public places, or after coughing or sneezing. If soap and water aren’t available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.

2. Wear a mask: Wear a mask that covers your nose and mouth in public settings where it’s hard to stay 6 feet away from others (like grocery stores, pharmacies, or health care facilities).

3. Social Distancing: Keep at least 6 feet (2 meters) distance from others, especially anyone who is coughing, sneezing, or not wearing a mask.

corona virus

4. Avoid crowded places: Stay away from crowded places as much as possible, where it may be difficult to maintain physical distancing.

5. Respiratory etiquette: Cover your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then dispose of the used tissue immediately.

6. Clean and Disinfect: Routinely clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily like doorknobs, light switches, cell phones, or keyboards.

7. Self-monitoring and isolation: Monitor your health and be alert for symptoms. If you are feeling ill or exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19, self-isolate and contact your healthcare provider.

8. Getting vaccinated: COVID-19 vaccines can help protect you from COVID-19, especially severe illness and hospitalization, and might also help protect the people around you.

Following these practices helps protect both yourself and others from the spread of the virus. Remember, it’s not just about protecting yourself, but also about reducing the overall spread of the disease within your community.

FAQ’s about Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Sure, here are the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the Coronavirus (COVID-19):

1. What is COVID-19?
COVID-19 is a disease caused by a virus called SARS-CoV-2. It was first discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease can cause a range of symptoms, from mild illness to severe respiratory distress.

2. How does COVID-19 spread?
COVID-19 is primarily spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching your own mouth, nose, or possibly your eyes.

3. What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
Symptoms can include fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. Other symptoms can include fatigue, body aches, loss of taste or smell, sore throat, congestion, or diarrhea.

4. How can I protect myself from COVID-19?
The best way to protect yourself and others is by staying home as much as possible, wearing a face mask when around others, maintain social distancing, and regularly cleaning your hands with soap and water or a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.

5. What should I do if I think I have COVID-19?
If you think you’ve been exposed to or have symptoms of COVID-19, isolate yourself from others and seek medical advice. Your healthcare provider may recommend testing.

6. Are certain people more at risk?
While COVID-19 can affect anyone, older adults and individuals with certain underlying health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or chronic respiratory disease, are more at risk of severe illness.

7. Is there a treatment or vaccine for COVID-19?
There is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19. The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to the virus. As for vaccines, several have been approved for emergency use by the WHO and being distributed globally.

8. Can you get COVID-19 more than once?
Research is currently ongoing, but some cases of reinfection have been reported.

9. How do vaccines against COVID-19 work?
Vaccines train our immune systems to create proteins that fight disease, known as ‘antibodies’, just as would happen when we are exposed to a disease, but crucially, vaccines work without making us sick.

10. Is it safe to take a COVID-19 vaccine?
Yes. The approved vaccines have undergone rigorous testing in clinical trials to assess their safety and efficacy.

Bear in mind that information is continually evolving, and it’s important to always refer to trusted sources for the most up-to-date information about COVID-19.

Useful links

Sure, here are some helpful and reputable sources where you can find current research papers, data, and articles related to the Coronavirus (COVID-19):


Please remember the research and understanding of COVID-19 is ongoing, and the information may vary or change as new data becomes available. Check dates and details of publications to ensure you are obtaining the most current data.

Complications of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

COVID-19, a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, presents a range of complications, from mild symptoms to severe illness and death. Here are some of the main complications:

1. Respiratory complications: Primary complications of COVID-19 involve the respiratory system. It can lead to pneumonia, where the lungs fill with fluid, making it hard for the patient to breathe. In severe cases, people can develop Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening condition causing lung inflammation and fluid buildup.

2. Organ damage: n some severe cases, the virus can cause damage to several organs, including the heart, liver, and kidneys. This can lead to long-term health issues and complications.

3. Blood Clots and Vascular Damage: COVID-19 can lead to the formation of blood clots, potentially leading to serious health problems like deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, strokes, or heart attacks.

4. Neurological issues: Some COVID-19 patients experience neurological complications, ranging from headaches and loss of smell or taste to more serious effects like strokes, seizures, or Guillain-Barre syndrome.

5. Long COVID: Some people experience symptoms or health problems months after contracting the virus, even after the virus has cleared from their body. These issues can include fatigue, shortness of breath, brain fog, sleep disorders, fevers, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, and depression.

6. Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-A): In very few cases, COVID-19 can affect many body systems at once, causing dangerous inflammation throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs.

It’s important to note that the best defense against these complications is to prevent the disease in its primary stages through appropriate safety measures, such as wearing masks, practicing good hand hygiene, maintaining social distance, and getting vaccinated. Everyone reacts differently to COVID-19; while some show no symptoms, others can become critically ill. It’s best to consult with a healthcare professional if one feels unwell or concerned about potential exposure.

Home remedies of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

It’s vital to note that coronavirus (COVID-19) can be severe or fatal for some people, so proper medical attention should be sought if one believes they have been exposed or if they are showing symptoms.

However, if you or someone you care about is infected and the symptoms are mild, the following home remedies can help relieve symptoms and promote recovery:

1. Rest and Hydration: Ensure you rest and stay hydrated. Hydration can help the body to naturally fight the virus. Drink water, juice, or broth to replace lost fluids.

2. Over-the-counter (OTC) Medications: Some OTC medications such as paracetamol can help you feel better by reducing fever and relieving mild aches.

3. Quarantine: Stay isolated at home to avoid spreading the virus to others, especially those with weak immune systems or other health conditions that could compromise their abilities to fight the infection.

4. Healthy Diet: Maintain a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, proteins and grains to strengthen the immune system.

5. Monitor your symptoms: If your symptoms become severe, such as difficulty breathing or persistent pain, seek medical attention immediately.

Additionally, practice good respiratory hygiene, such as covering your mouth when coughing or sneezing with a tissue that should be properly disposed of, and frequent hand washing, especially before touching your face. Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces in your home.

Remind anyone who’s sick or confirmed with COVID-19 NOT to share personal household items like dishes, towels, and bedding.

Again, these are supportive measures and not treatments for COVID-19. If you’re experiencing severe or worsening symptoms, it’s important to seek medical help immediately. Vaccination against COVID-19 is strongly recommended and is the most effective way to protect against severe disease.

Categorized in:

Infectious Diseases,

Last Update: December 29, 2023