Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by various liver diseases and conditions such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism. It’s often the end result of long-term, continuous damage to the liver. Healthy liver cells are replaced by scar tissue, which cannot perform the vital functions that a healthy liver can, such as detoxifying harmful substances in your body, cleaning your blood and making vital nutrients. This can eventually lead to liver failure. Cirrhosis is a serious condition and can be fatal if not treated properly.


Causes of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver can be caused by several factors:

1. Chronic Alcohol Abuse: This is one of the most common causes of cirrhosis in developed countries. Alcohol can damage and kill liver cells, resulting in inflammation and scarring.

2. Hepatitis: Chronic Hepatitis C, B, and D are all viral infections that can ultimately lead to cirrhosis.

3. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): It’s a form of fatty liver disease usually seen in people who are obese or have type 2 diabetes. NASH causes inflammation and deposits of fat in the liver.

4. Autoimmune Hepatitis: In this condition, your immune system attacks liver cells, causing inflammation and injury.

5. Diseases that damage or destroy bile ducts: These include primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and biliary atresia.

6. Genetic Diseases: Certain genetic conditions can lead to cirrhosis like Hemochromatosis (excess iron in the body), Wilson’s disease (excess copper in the liver), cystic fibrosis, Alagille syndrome, glycogen storage diseases, etc.

7. Drugs, toxins, and infections: Certain drugs, environmental toxins and recurrent bouts of heart failure with liver congestion can cause cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis often has no signs or symptoms until liver damage is extensive. When signs and symptoms do occur, they may include fatigue, easily bleeding or bruising, loss of appetite, nausea, swollen legs, weight loss, etc. It’s important to consult a medical professional if you have any concerns.

Risk Factors of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by various forms of liver diseases and conditions, such as hepatitis and chronic alcoholism. Here are some key risk factors that can increase the chances of developing this disease:

1. Alcohol Abuse: Chronic and heavy alcohol consumption is one of the most common causes of cirrhosis, as it causes liver damage.

2. Chronic Viral Hepatitis: Hepatitis B, C, and D are all known for leading to liver damage and, eventually, cirrhosis.

3. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): This condition, which includes a range from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), can lead to cirrhosis.

4. Autoimmune Hepatitis: This disorder, an inflammation of the liver that occurs when immune cells mistake the liver’s normal cells for harmful invaders, can lead to damage and cirrhosis.

5. Diseases that Damage or Destroy Bile Ducts: Conditions such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) can cause damage leading to cirrhosis.

6. Genetic Diseases: Certain inherited diseases, like Wilson’s disease, hemochromatosis, and others can cause cirrhosis.

7. Chronic Heart Failure: Right-sided heart failure can lead to a condition known as “cardiac cirrhosis”.

8. Drugs and Toxins: Certain drugs or toxins can cause liver damage and cirrhosis.

Remember, you are not guaranteed to get cirrhosis if you have one of these conditions or habits, but they can increase your risk.

Signs and Symptoms of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver marked by degradation of cells, inflammation, and fibrous thickening of tissue. It’s typically a result of alcohol abuse or viral hepatitis over many years.

Here are some signs and symptoms of cirrhosis:

1. Fatigue and Weakness: The reduced liver functionality can result in general feelings of fatigue and physical weakness.

2. Loss of Appetite: Cirrhosis can cause nausea and lack of interest in food, leading to weight loss.

3. Yellow Discoloration in the Skin and Eyes (Jaundice): This occurs when the liver isn’t able to process and clear out bilirubin, a yellow-brown pigment.

4. Itchy Skin: Many people with cirrhosis experience pruritus, or itchy skin, due to bile products deposited in the skin.

5. Fluid Accumulation: This is also known as edema and ascites, leading to swelling in the legs, ankles or abdomen, due to the liver’s inability to produce albumin, a protein that prevents fluid leakage from the capillaries.

6. Portal Hypertension: High blood pressure in the arteries and veins of the abdomen is a common complication of liver cirrhosis.

7. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: This can result from swollen veins (varices) in the lower esophagus and stomach.

8. Confusion, Slurred Speech, Sleep Problems: In later stage, a damaged liver cannot remove toxins from the blood, causing them to accumulate in the blood and eventually the brain leading to hepatic encephalopathy.

9. Red Palms: Known as palmar erythema, this symptom is a reddening of the palms of the hands and can be a sign of cirrhosis.

10. Sensitivity to medications: Cirrhosis slow the liver’s ability to filter medications from the blood.

These symptoms may not appear until liver damage is fairly advanced. Therefore, regular checkups are necessary for people who have a higher risk of liver disease. If you have some of these symptoms and are concerned about your health, you should see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Diagnosis Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late-stage liver disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue, preventing the liver from its normal function. The scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and slows the processing of nutrients, hormones, drugs, and naturally produced toxins.

It can develop due to several conditions such as chronic alcoholism, hepatitis, or fatty liver disease. Symptoms include fatigue, easily bleeding or bruising, loss of appetite, nausea, swelling in the legs, weight loss, jaundice, and confusion or drowsiness.

There’s no cure for cirrhosis, but reducing the damage to the liver by treating the underlying cause can sometimes help slow the progression. Management focuses on preventing further damage, managing the symptoms, treating complications, and potentially a liver transplant. It’s crucial to get an early diagnosis and treatment to stop or delay the progression of cirrhosis.

Treatment of Cirrhosis

Treatment for cirrhosis depends on the cause and the level of liver damage. Despite the cause, the aim of the treatment is to prevent further damage, manage the symptoms and complications, and prevent or detect liver cancer early. Some of the treatment options are as follows:

1. Alcohol cessation: If cirrhosis is the result of long-term alcohol abuse, the key treatment is complete abstinence from alcohol. This prevents further damage to the liver and in some early cases, may even reverse the damage.

2. Medication: Depending on the cause, medication may be prescribed. For example, if the cause is a chronic viral infection of the liver (like hepatitis), antiviral drugs may be beneficial in reducing liver damage.

3. Weight loss: If cirrhosis is caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, weight loss and controlling diabetes can improve the conditions.

4. Lifestyle changes: Quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, limited salt intake and avoiding certain medications can prevent further liver damage.

5. Cirrhosis may lead to further complications like enlarged veins (varices) in the oesophagus and stomach, liver cancer, and liver failure. For these, specific treatments or even liver transplantation may be needed.

6. End-Stage Liver Disease (ESLD): In cases where cirrhosis has progressed to ESLD, a liver transplant may be the only viable option.

In all cases, regular follow-ups with the doctor is critical for monitoring the liver condition, managing symptoms, and implementing or adjusting treatment plans. Always remember that specific treatments vary depending on the individual’s health condition and it is always best to consult a healthcare provider for a personalized treatment plan.

Medications commonly used for Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver is a chronic, progressive condition that leads to impaired liver function. It can be treated but can’t be completely cured. Different medications are used to manage symptoms and complications associated with cirrhosis:

1. Diuretics: These are used to control fluid retention in patients with cirrhosis. Increased pressure in the portal vein can lead to fluid build up in the abdomen known as ascites. Medications like Furosemide and Spironolactone are used.

2. Beta-Blockers: Drugs such as Propranolol and Nadolol are used to lower blood pressure in the portal vein, decreasing the likelihood of bleeding from varices (enlarged veins in the esophagus and stomach).

3. Lactulose: This medication is often used to help reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood for patients with hepatic encephalopathy, a condition that affects brain function due to liver disease.

4. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be given to prevent or treat infections. In people with cirrhosis, bacterial infections can trigger liver failure.

5. Antivirals: If the cirrhosis is caused by hepatitis B or C, antiviral drugs can be used to reduce the progression of the disease.

6. Ursodeoxycholic acid: This medication might be used if the cause of cirrhosis is primary biliary cholangitis. It helps to improve liver function by assisting the liver to move bile through the liver and gallbladder, reducing the risk of further damage.

Always consult with your healthcare provider or a pharmacist regarding the benefits and potential side effects of your medications. It is important to take these medications exactly as prescribed to prevent further damage to the liver.

Prevention of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by different types of liver diseases. Here are some steps to help prevent this condition:

1. Avoid Alcoholism: Excessive intake of alcohol causes fatty deposits within liver cells and inflammation which leads to cirrhosis. Minimizing or abstaining from alcohol can restrict this.

2. Healthy Diet: Eating a healthy diet can help maintain good liver health. Additionally, consuming controlled levels of protein can prevent toxins from accumulating in the blood.

3. Vaccinations: Certain diseases such as hepatitis can cause liver inflammation leading to cirrhosis. Make sure you take vaccinations to protect yourself against such liver-damaging infections.

4. Regular Exercise and Weight Control: Being overweight can cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which can result in cirrhosis. Proper exercise and maintaining a healthy weight can help prevent this.

5. Limit Use of Over-the-Counter Medications: Overuse of certain medicines, such as acetaminophen, more than the recommended dose can badly affect the liver leading to cirrhosis.

6. Avoid Illegal Drugs: Injected drug use can lead to infectious diseases like HIV and Hepatitis B and C, all of which can cause liver damage.

7. Be Careful with Toxic Chemicals: Protect yourself from harmful chemicals by wearing a mask and gloves if you’re exposed to them in your work or home. These can be harmful to the liver if ingested or inhaled.

Always remember, should you experience any liver related symptoms, seek medical help as early detection can often allow treatments to slow the progress of cirrhosis.

FAQ’s about Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver caused by many forms of liver diseases and conditions. Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about cirrhosis:

1. What are the causes of cirrhosis?
Cirrhosis can be caused by long-term damage to the liver from any reason. Chronic alcoholism, hepatitis B and C, and fatty liver disease are some of the most common causes.

2. What are the symptoms of cirrhosis?
Initially, cirrhosis might not exhibit any symptoms. However, as liver function deteriorates, symptoms can include fatigue, bleeding or bruising easily, jaundice, itchy skin, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), and loss of appetite.

3. How is cirrhosis diagnosed?
Diagnosis of cirrhosis can be made through physical examination, blood tests, imaging tests like CT scans, MRIs, and biopsy (where a small sample of liver tissue is removed for laboratory examination).

4. What is the treatment for cirrhosis?
Treatment aims to stop the progression of the scar tissue in the liver, and to prevent or treat the symptoms and complications of the disease. This can involve lifestyle changes, medication, and in severe cases, a liver transplant.

5. Can cirrhosis be prevented?
In many cases, cirrhosis is preventable by avoiding risk factors such as excessive alcohol consumption, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting vaccinated and avoiding risky behaviors that can lead to hepatitis B and C.

6. Is cirrhosis curable?
Cirrhosis is not curable, but it’s possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In advanced cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

7. How does cirrhosis affect overall health?
Cirrhosis can lead to a number of complications, including liver cancer. As the liver is integral to many of the body’s functions, cirrhosis can have serious impact on overall health.

It’s always important to consult with healthcare professionals regarding this disease. They can provide a comprehensive understanding of the disease, diagnostics, potential treatments, and individual prognosis.

Useful links

Cirrhosis is a late stage of scarring (fibrosis) of the liver. It is a serious disease that often occurs as the result of chronic, long-term damage to the liver from things like alcohol abuse and viral hepatitis.

Here are few scientific journals on cirrhosis of the liver:


Please note that access to some of these articles may require a subscription to the journal or individually purchased access. Always make sure to adhere to copyright laws when accessing and sharing scholarly articles.

Complications of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis of the liver is a late-stage liver disease characterized by scarring (fibrosis) of the liver that impairs its normal function. It has several potential complications, including:

1. Portal Hypertension: The normal flow of blood through the liver may be slowed or blocked due to the scarring, causing an increase in blood pressure in the portal vein (portal hypertension) which carries blood to the liver from the intestines.


2. Ascites: The increased pressure in the portal vein can lead to fluid buildup in the abdomen, known as ascites. This can cause bloating, shortness of breath, and can lead to bacterial peritonitis, a serious infection.

3. Splenomegaly: Portal hypertension can also cause enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), reducing the available white and red blood cells and platelets, causing anemia, increased infection risk, and easy bleeding.

4. Varices: This high pressure can cause blood to back up into veins in the stomach and esophagus, causing them to enlarge to the point of possibly rupturing which can cause life-threatening internal bleeding.

5. Hepatic Encephalopathy: In severe cases, toxins build up in the bloodstream because the liver is no longer able to properly filter them out. This can affect brain function causing confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech.

6. Malnutrition: Due to disturbance in the liver’s ability to store and process nutrients.

7. Liver Cancer: Cirrhosis increases the risk of developing liver cancer.

8. Kidney Failure: If uncontrolled, cirrhosis can lead to kidney failure, which can be life-threatening.

These complications can be serious and life-threatening. Treatment involves managing the symptoms and complications of the disease and preventing further liver damage. Liver transplant is the final resort when the liver function is severely impaired.

Home remedies of Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a severe liver disease which cannot be completely treated with home remedies. It is critical that anyone diagnosed with cirrhosis seek professional medical treatment. However, lifestyle changes and some home remedies can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life. Here are a few suggestions:

1. Diet: A balanced diet supports liver function. Eat plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. A low-salt diet may help with fluid accumulation and swelling.

2. Alcohol: Avoid alcohol completely. Even if alcohol is not the cause of your cirrhosis, drinking can further damage your liver.

3. Exercise: Regular physical activity can help maintain a healthy weight and reduce liver fat.

4. Avoid Harmful Substances: Certain toxins can further injure liver cells. Avoid direct contact with chemicals found in cleaning products, aerosols, etc.

5. Herbal Remedies: Some herbs like milk thistle, dandelion, and turmeric have been said to benefit liver health. However, always consult with your healthcare provider before starting any herbal supplements.

6. Stay Hydrated: Drinking plenty of water supports overall health, including liver function.

7. Rest: Fatigue is common with cirrhosis, resting when tired can help.

Remember, while these tips may help manage symptoms and support liver function, they are not a substitute for professional medical treatment. Regular checkups, medication, and potentially even a liver transplant may be necessary to manage cirrhosis.

Lastly, these remedies might not be suitable for everyone since cirrhosis can differ from person to person. Always consult your doctor before starting any new diet, exercise or supplement regimen.

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Last Update: January 8, 2024