In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the potential therapeutic benefits of psychedelic substances, including psilocybin and psilocin, the active compounds present in Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms. As research into these substances gains momentum, ensuring the accurate and reliable determination of their concentrations has become increasingly important for clinical and research settings.

A groundbreaking study, recently published in the prestigious journal, Analytica Chimica Acta, details the development of a novel and precise method for the quantitation of psilocybin and psilocin. Led by researchers from The University of Texas at Arlington and supported by experts from Shimadzu Scientific Instruments and Millipore-Sigma, this investigation sets a new standard for psychedelic compound assessment.

The research team members, including Goff Roman R, Smith Morgan M, Islam Sabrina S, Sisley Sue S, Ferguson Jonathan J, Kuzdzal Scott S, Badal Sunil S, Kumar Arun Babu AB, Sreenivasan Uma U, and Schug Kevin A, have combined expertise in chemistry, biochemistry, and advanced analytical techniques. Their study is particularly notable for the meticulous development of an extraction protocol and a reversed-phase chromatography on fused-core particle phases, enabling a speedy determination of the analytes in under 5 minutes.

DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2023.342161


1. Psilocybin potency
2. Psilocin analysis
3. Magic mushroom strains
4. LC-MS/MS methodology
5. Psychedelic compound research

The Methodology Advances

The method works by leveraging liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a powerful analytical combination that offers high specificity and sensitivity. Using this method, the researchers established a limit of detection for psilocybin at an impressive 1.5 ng/mL and for psilocin at an even more sensitive 0.15 ng/mL.

An aspect of the study that significantly bolsters the credibility of the findings is the comparative analysis of the extracted substances using a Shimadzu LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The team evaluated multiple strains of Psilocybe cubensis mushrooms, including Blue Meanie, Creeper, B-Plus, Texas Yellow, and Thai Cubensis, to determine potency variations.

Strain Potency Variations Unveiled

One of the key revelations of the research is that there is an apparent variation in the potency of different Psilocybe cubensis strains. The study found that strains varied from the most potent Creeper, with an average total psilocybin and psilocin concentration of 1.36% (w/w), to the least potent Thai Cubensis at 0.879% (w/w). These findings have significant implications for both consumers and researchers seeking to understand the effects and therapeutic potential of these psychedelic compounds.

Comparative Precision and Recovery

Interesting to note, when the analysis was replicated in a secondary non-affiliated laboratory, the results showed improved precision when multiple mushrooms were homogenized together before extraction. This observation underscores the importance of sample preparation in achieving reproducible results. The accuracy and precision percent errors of the method, with relative standard deviations (RSD) found to be less than 6% at all concentration levels, attest to the method’s reliability.

Potential Applications and Impact

This research provides a critical tool for the standardization and quality control of psilocybin and psilocin, which could enhance regulatory compliance, clinical trial design, and the informed use of mushrooms in therapeutic contexts.


Goff, R. R., Smith, M. M., Islam, S. S., Sisley, S. S., Ferguson, J. J., Kuzdzal, S. S., Badal, S. S., Kumar, A. B., Sreenivasan, U. U., & Schug, K. A. (2024). Determination of psilocybin and psilocin content in multiple Psilocybe cubensis mushroom strains using liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 1288, 342161. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2023.342161

Declaration of competing interest: The authors declare potential competing financial interests/personal relationships. JF and SK are employees of Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, the manufacturer of the instrumentation used in this study. SB, ABK, and US are from Millipore-Sigma and conducted the secondary potency study, providing chemical standards for the research.

This sophisticated method heralds a new era in psychedelic compound analysis, providing a robust tool that could play a crucial role in the emerging field of psychedelic therapy. The potential impact of such accurate determinations of psilocybin and psilocin content could extend beyond clinical applications, reaching into the realms of legal regulation and standardized product development within the burgeoning psychedelic industry.