Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that is characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. This brain-based condition typically starts in childhood and can continue into adulthood.

There are three subtypes of ADHD: predominantly inattentive presentation, predominantly hyperactive-impulse presentation, and combined presentation.


Symptoms of inattention may include difficulty focusing on tasks, frequently making careless mistakes, being easily distracted or forgetful, and struggling to follow instructions. Meanwhile, symptons of hyperactivity-impulsivity may include being unable to sit still, talking excessively, interrupting others, and acting on impulse without thinking.

The exact causes of ADHD aren’t known, but it’s believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Treatment for ADHD often involves a multi-faceted approach including medication, behavioral therapy, education or training, and self-care strategies.

Causes of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects both children and adults. Professionals are not sure what exactly causes ADHD but have identified several potential factors that may contribute to the condition.

1. Genetics: ADHD tends to run in families suggesting a strong genetic component. According to various studies, a child with ADHD is four times more likely to have a relative who was also diagnosed with attention deficit disorder.

2. Brain structure and function: Brain imaging studies have shown that the brains of people with ADHD are slightly different from those without the condition. For example, certain areas of the brain may be smaller, or there may be less activity in areas that control attention, or the connections between these areas may work less effectively.

3. Neurotransmitters: These are the brain chemicals that carry signals between nerves. They play a key role in managing mood, behavior, and attention. It’s thought that these may not work as well in people with ADHD.

4. Prenatal influences: Certain conditions during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of a child being diagnosed with ADHD. These include smoking, drinking alcohol, or using drugs during pregnancy; prenatal exposure to environmental toxins like lead; premature delivery; low birth weight; or injuries to the brain at birth.

5. Environmental factors: Exposure to high levels of lead or other toxic substances at a young age may affect brain development and functioning, leading to ADHD. High levels of family stress or poor child-rearing practices may also contribute to the development of ADHD.

6. Brain injuries: Less commonly, ADHD can be associated with traumatic brain injury or neurological disorders. It should be noted, however, that the vast majority of people with ADHD do not have any such physical brain injury.

It’s important to remember that these factors don’t necessarily cause ADHD on their own, but they can increase the risk of developing the condition.

Risk Factors of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be influenced by a variety of risk factors. However, it’s important to note that these risk factors do not guarantee the development of ADHD, but they can increase the likelihood. The causes of ADHD aren’t fully understood, but the following are some of the factors that have been linked to the development of the condition:

1. Genetics: ADHD tends to run in families. If a parent or sibling has ADHD, a person is more likely to also have the disorder. Various genes, most of which relate to dopamine regulation in the brain, have been linked to ADHD.

2. Brain structure and function: Certain areas of the brain may be less active or smaller in people with ADHD compared with those without the disorder. Imbalances in neurotransmitters, the chemicals that transmit signals in the brain, are also commonly found.

3. Preterm birth or low birth weight: Babies who are born prematurely (before 37 weeks of gestation) or with low birth weight have a higher risk of developing ADHD.

4. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke or alcohol: Smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of ADHD.

5. Exposure to environmental lead or pesticides: High levels of lead in the bodies of young children can contribute to ADHD. Also, exposure to pesticides (for example, from living near a farm) could increase the risk.

6. Brain injury: Injury to the brain, usually to the frontal lobes, can cause ADHD-like symptoms.

Remember, having these risk factors doesn’t mean that a person will definitely develop ADHD. It’s a combination of many factors – potentially including some that haven’t been discovered yet. It’s always important to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis.

Signs and Symptoms of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. It includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Here are some signs and symptoms:

1. Difficulty paying attention: A person with ADHD can often lose focus, particularly during repetitive activities. They tend to easily get distracted and find it hard to listen when spoken to directly. This may appear as if they are not interested or if they are not listening or heard what has been said.

2. Hyperactivity: People suffering from ADHD often seem to be in constant motion. They can’t sit still and may often squirm or fidget. Children, in particular, may run, jump, or climb in situations where it’s not appropriate.

3. Impulsivity: ADHD sufferers often act without thinking about the consequence of their actions. They can interrupt conversations, invade others’ personal space, or make impulsive decisions without considering the outcomes.

4. Disorganization: People with ADHD might have trouble keeping track of tasks and activities. This may manifest in positivities like missing deadlines, forgetting social engagements or skipping appointments.

5. Poor time management: Constant delays, an inability to stick to the timetable, or an underestimation of the time required to complete a task are usually seen.

6. Difficulty following through on tasks: This could include not completing homework assignments, chores, or duties in the workplace, or starting projects but not finishing them.

7. Poor planning: People with ADHD may have trouble with planning projects or events and can struggle with executing tasks in an orderly manner.

8. Low frustration tolerance: People with ADHD can have trouble dealing with stress. They may have outbursts of anger at inappropriate times. They might also have trouble adjusting to changes.

9. Mood swings: People with ADHD might be happy one moment, sad the next, then angry soon after.

10. Trouble sustaining attention in tasks or play: This refers to the inability to maintain focus during busy or tedious activities.

It’s normal for children to have trouble with things like attention and impulse control, but for children with ADHD, these issues are more severe and occur more often. Also, while many adults struggle with symptoms like these from time to time, for adults with ADHD, these symptoms can greatly affect their lives. It’s best to consult with a healthcare provider or a mental health specialist if you suspect that you or someone else may have ADHD.

Diagnosis Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder often diagnosed in childhood but can persist into adulthood. The disorder is characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that are beyond expected levels for a person’s age and developmental level. These behaviors interfere significantly with a person’s daily life and social, academic, or occupational functioning.

Diagnosis of ADHD is typically based on a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician, such as a pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist who has expertise in ADHD. This evaluation usually involves:

1. Observation of the individual’s behavior and daily activities.
2. Detailed history of the individual’s behavior from parents, teachers, and/or other adults who are familiar with the individual.
3. Standardized behavior rating scales filled out by parents, teachers, and/or the individual.
4. Rule out other possible mental or physical conditions that could be causing the symptoms.

The exact cause of ADHD isn’t known, but research suggests it might be related to a combination of genes, environment, and slight differences in how the brain is hardwired. While treatment typically involves medication, psychotherapy like behavioral interventions, and lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, adequate sleep, and regular physical activity, a combination of all those approaches is often the most effective.

Treatment of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, education or training, and lifestyle changes.

1. Medication: Stimulant medications like Adderall, Ritalin, or Vyvanse are commonly used to manage ADHD symptoms. These medicines can help improve focus and attention span, and control impulsive behavior. Non-stimulant medication such as Atomoxetine or Guanfacine might be prescribed if stimulants are not suitable.

2. Psychotherapy: This can be helpful for both the individual with ADHD and their family. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can help an individual cope with ADHD symptoms and improve self-esteem. Family or marital therapy can help loved ones better understand the disorder and learn how to communicate more effectively with the person who has ADHD.

3. Education or Training: Educating oneself about ADHD can help in managing symptoms. There are many resources available, including books and support groups. For children with ADHD, schools may offer special education services and accommodations.

4. Lifestyle Changes: Regular physical activity, a healthy diet, adequate sleep, and limiting screen time can be beneficial for managing ADHD symptoms. Regular routines and organized environments can also help.

5. Behavior Management Strategies: This can involve tools and skills such as setting up system of rewards and consequences, using timeouts or losing privileges, giving clear and consistent rules.

The best approach to treating ADHD is usually a multifaceted one that involves a combination of these methods tailored to the individual’s needs. It is important to maintain regular contact with healthcare providers to monitor progress and adjust treatment as needed. As always, treatment plans should be developed with the help of healthcare providers to ensure the most effective treatment plan for the individual.

Medications commonly used for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is often treated with a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes. Here are some of the most common medications used for treating ADHD:

1. Stimulants: These are the most commonly used medications for ADHD. They work by increasing the levels of specific chemicals in the brain that help with thinking and attention. Examples include Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), Amphetamines (Adderall, Dexedrine), and Dextroamphetamine (Vyvanse).

2. Non-stimulants: In some cases, non-stimulants can be used if stimulants aren’t effective or have problematic side effects. They have a slower onset than stimulants and can last up to 24 hours. Examples include Atomoxetine (Strattera) and Guanfacine (Intuniv).

3. Antidepressants: While not first-line treatment, antidepressants can help with ADHD along with co-existing conditions like anxiety and depression. Examples include Bupropion (Wellbutrin) or Tricyclics (Tofranil, Norpramin).

These medications all have different potential side effects, interactions, and contraindications, so it’s very important that they are prescribed and overseen by a knowledgeable healthcare provider. The right medication and dose differ from person to person, so it may take some time to find the best fit. Always follow the specific usage guidelines provided by the prescribing provider.

Prevention of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Prevention of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be a challenging concept as ADHD is typically understood to be a neurodevelopmental disorder, meaning it has biological origins. However, certain measures can still be taken to potentially reduce the risk of ADHD, its severity, and to manage its symptoms:

1. Prenatal care: Proper healthcare before and during pregnancy can reduce the risks. Avoiding smoking, alcohol, drug use, and exposure to certain environmental toxins during pregnancy may help prevent ADHD.


2. Nutritious diet: While it is not confirmed that diet causes ADHD, some studies suggest that certain nutrients may contribute to brain health. Eating a balanced diet during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood might promote normal brain development.

3. Limiting exposure to toxins: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, like lead, can increase the risk of ADHD. Ensuring a safe and clean environment can help.

4. Early intervention: If a child seems to show signs of ADHD, implementing behavioral therapies and educational strategies early on can potentially mitigate the severity of symptoms as the child develops.

5. Promoting physical activity: Regular physical activity, particularly outdoor play, can help improve concentration and decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity.

6. Limit screen time: With the increasing use of digital gadgets, limiting screen time, and encouraging more interactive play can foster better attention spans.

7. Establishing routine: A consistent daily schedule can help manage ADHD symptoms in children who already have the disorder. Consistency and having a structured environment can be comforting and help children manage their symptoms.

Nevertheless, it’s important to understand that you cannot completely prevent ADHD. If a child has ADHD, these measures can help manage symptoms, but they do not cure the disorder. Always consult with healthcare professionals for advice tailored to individual situations.

FAQ’s about Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

1. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, usually diagnosed in childhood. Those with ADHD may exhibit symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are more severe, frequent, or interfere with their lives more than those in their same age bracket.

2. Who can be affected by ADHD?
Although it is most commonly diagnosed in children, ADHD can be diagnosed in adults as well. The criteria for diagnosis may vary slightly for adults, since the symptoms can look different in adults than children.

3. What are common symptoms of ADHD?
Common symptoms include difficulty focusing, hyperactivity, impulsivity, difficulty finishing tasks, easily distracted, fidgeting, excessive talking, forgetfulness, difficulty organizing tasks, and often losing things necessary for tasks or activities.

4. How is ADHD diagnosed?
A diagnosis of ADHD is typically made by a qualified healthcare provider using criteria set out by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Observation and interviews, as well physical exams and medical history, can also be part of the diagnostic process. A complete evaluation often includes ruling out other conditions and considering the presence of coexisting conditions.

5. Can ADHD be Cured?
While there is no ‘cure’ for ADHD, it’s possible to effectively manage the symptoms with the right combination of treatments. This can include behavioral interventions, medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.

6. Are there specific medications for ADHD?
Yes, there are several different medications that have been approved for the treatment of ADHD, including both stimulant and non-stimulant medications. The type of medication and dosage will depend on a number of factors, and should be decided on by a healthcare professional.

7. Can ADHD affect academic performance?
Yes, without proper intervention and support, ADHD can negatively impact academic performance. This is mainly due to symptoms like difficulty concentrating, problems with organizational skills, and impulsiveness. However, with the right support and accommodations, students with ADHD can thrive in academic settings.

8. Are there support resources for people with ADHD?
Numerous resources exist for individuals with ADHD and their family members. This includes professional healthcare services, online resources, support groups, books, and more. Schools and workplaces may also offer accommodations to help individuals with ADHD manage their symptoms.

9. How can I help a loved one with ADHD?
Support can come in many forms, including understanding the condition, encouraging treatment, and helping with organization and time management. It’s also crucial to offer emotional support; people with ADHD often struggle with self-esteem due to their symptoms.

10. Can diet or lifestyle changes help manage ADHD symptoms?
While it’s inconclusive that diet or lifestyle alone can manage ADHD symptoms, certain changes may help when done in conjunction with other treatments. Regular exercise and a balanced diet can often assist with managing symptoms. Some studies suggest that certain food additives or large amounts of sugar may exacerbate ADHD symptoms in some children, but more research is needed.

Useful links

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. It includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Here are some useful links from scientific journals and research databases for ADHD research:


It is essential to be mindful of the fact that the study and understanding of ADHD are continually evolving, and therefore it is crucial to always seek for the most recent information. These sources are a fantastic starting point, but there is a vast amount of other resources and research to explore.

Complications of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder often characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. It can significantly affect a person’s working and social life. Here are some potential complications or issues that can arise as a result of ADHD:

1. Academic difficulties: Children and adults with ADHD often struggle with attention spans and often find it challenging to stay focused on tasks or assignments.

2. Social Issues: Because of impulsive behavior, people with ADHD may find it difficult to build and maintain relationships with peers. They might frequently interrupt conversations, speak out of turn, or act without considering the consequences.

3. Substance abuse and addiction: Some studies have indicated that people with ADHD are more likely to experience problems with substance abuse or addictions in their lifetime.

4. Other mental health conditions: ADHD doesn’t just occur alone. It frequently coexists with other mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, and others. This complicates both diagnosis and treatment.

5. Employment problems: Adults with ADHD may struggle to keep a job. They might find it difficult to prioritize tasks, stay organized, or maintain attention throughout an entire work shift.

6. Challenges in daily tasks: ADHD can make it difficult to complete routine tasks, such as completing homework, getting ready for work, or cooking a meal.

7. Self-esteem issues: People with ADHD may have poor self-esteem due to the challenges related to the disorder.

8. Physical health issues: People with ADHD may have other issues related to diet, exercise, or sleep. They may have poor impulse control and struggle to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Specific complications and their severity can differ greatly from person to person. It’s also worth noting that with appropriate treatment and support, people with ADHD can manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Home remedies of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Sure, there are several non-prescription methods to support managing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). But remember, these are not substitutions for professional medical treatment and should only be used in collaboration with a healthcare provider. Here are some home remedies and lifestyle changes that can help manage ADHD:

1. Diet: A healthy diet comprising lean proteins, fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates can help manage ADHD symptoms. Some people find that certain food additives, food dyes, or high sugar intake worsen ADHD symptoms.

2. Physical Activity: Regular physical activity is highly recommended. Exercise releases brain chemicals that support attention and focus, and it can alleviate common ADHD symptoms.

3. Sleep: Regular and predictable sleep schedules can help manage ADHD symptoms. Insufficient sleep can exacerbate ADHD symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

4. Mindfulness and Meditation: Practices such as yoga and meditation can help improve focus, reduce stress, and boost mood, which can be beneficial for individuals with ADHD.

5. Behavioral Therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and other similar therapies can equip individuals with ADHD with techniques to regulate their behavior and improve time management and organizational skills.

6. Biofeedback: Though not a home remedy, biofeedback is a non-invasive therapy that can help by teaching the individual to control their body functions, like heartbeat, and understand the body’s response to hyperactivity and stress.

7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: These essential fatty acids, found in fish, algae, and certain seeds and nuts, are also believed to have a positive impact on brain functions related to concentration and attention.

8. Limit Screen Time: Overexposure to screens, particularly before bedtime, can worsen ADHD symptoms.

Again, these are adjuncts to professional medical therapy and should not replace a medical treatment plan. Be sure to consult your healthcare provider before trying any new home remedies or supplements. They can guide you appropriately considering your overall health status and specific ADHD symptoms.

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Mental Health,

Last Update: January 11, 2024