Depression is a common and serious mental health condition that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think, and how you act. It causes feelings of sadness or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to various emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and home.

Depression symptoms can vary from mild to severe and can include:

1. Feeling sad or having a depressed mood.
2. Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed.
3. Changes in appetite — weight loss or gain unrelated to dieting.
4. Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much.
5. Loss of energy or increased fatigue.
6. Feeling worthless or guilty.
7. Difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions.
8. Thoughts of death or suicide.


Depression isn’t a weakness and you can’t simply “snap out” of it. It most often requires treatment to get better. The exact cause of depression is unknown, but it can occur for a variety of reasons. It’s often linked to a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. It’s important to seek professional help if you’re experiencing symptoms of depression.

Causes of Depression

Depression is a complex mental health disorder and its causes are often multi-factorial, involving an interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors. Let’s break down these causes:

1. Biochemical Imbalances: Depression can occur due to imbalances in certain chemicals in the brain, specially neurotransmitters like serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine which help regulate mood, sleep, and appetite.

2. Genetics: Depression can run in families, suggesting a genetic link. Having a first degree relative (like a parent or sibling) with depression increases the likelihood of developing the disease.

3. Physical Health Problems: Chronic and serious illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, or cancer may lead to depressive symptoms.

4. Medications: Certain medications such as some drugs for high blood pressure or sleeping pills can increase the risk of depression.

5. Stressful Life Events: Stress from things like financial problems, the end of a relationship, death of a loved one, or other significant life changes can trigger episodes of depression in some people.

6. Personality Traits: Individuals who have low self-esteem, are overly dependent, self-critical, pessimistic or easily overwhelmed by stress are at higher risk.

7. Substance Abuse: Use of drugs or alcohol can lead to, or worsinkle in depression.

8. Hormonal Changes: Changes in the body’s balance of hormones may be involved in triggering or causing depression. This can be due to a medical condition or due to normal stages of life such as puberty, pregnancy, postpartum period and menopause.

Do remember this is a complex disorder, and it’s usually caused by a combination of these factors rather than a single one. It’s also important to note that it’s a treatable condition and help is available.

Risk Factors of Depression

Depression can be caused by a combination of several different factors. Here are some of the risk factors:

1. Biochemistry: Changes in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression.

2. Genetics: Depression can be common in families. If a close relative has been diagnosed, you’re more likely to develop the condition.

3. Personality: Certain personality traits, such as low self-esteem, pessimism, or being overly dependent, self-critical, or easily overwhelmed by stress, can make you more prone to depression.

4. Environmental Factors: Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse, or poverty may make some people more susceptible to depression.

5. Physical Conditions: Certain physical conditions may contribute to depression. These can include chronic illnesses, insomnia or chronic sleep-related problems, chronic pain, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

6. Other mental health problems: Anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and (especially) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can increase the risk of developing depression.

7. Substance Abuse: Nearly 30% of people with substance abuse problems also have major or clinical depression.

8. Medications: Some drugs, such as isotretinoin (used to treat acne), the antiviral drug interferon-alpha, and corticosteroids, can increase your risk of depression.

9. Life Events: Certain events, like losing a loved one, a difficult relationship, financial problems, or any stressful situations, can trigger depression.

10. Age: Depression can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Older adults are also at high risk due to factors like isolation, the loss of loved ones, or physical ailments. Teenagers and children are also prone, with factors such as peer pressure, academic expectations and changing bodies contributing.

Remember, experiencing one or more of these risk factors doesn’t mean you’ll develop depression. It just raises the chances. Depression is treatable, and people with depression can lead full and successful lives. Anyone feeling they may be experiencing depression should speak to a healthcare professional.

Signs and Symptoms of Depression

Depression is a mental health disorder which impacts the mood, thought process, and overall daily functioning of an individual. It’s more than just feeling sad or down, it’s a persistent problem that doesn’t go away easily.

Here are some common signs and symptoms of depression:

1. Persistent Sadness or Low Mood: The primary sign is a feeling of deep sadness or emptiness on most days that doesn’t go away.

2. Loss of Interest or Pleasure: One loses interest in activities they once enjoyed. This could include hobbies, personal projects, sports, and more.

3. Tieredness and Lack of Energy: People with depression often feel constantly drained, to the point where even minor tasks can seem difficult.

4. Difficulty Concentrating and Making Decisions: Experiencing problems with focus, decision making, or memory is also common in those with depression.

5. Changes in Sleep Patterns: This can range from insomnia (difficulty sleeping) to hypersomnia (sleeping too much).

6. Appetite or Weight Changes: Some people may experience a significant decrease or increase in appetite, leading to weight loss or weight gain that is unintentional.

7. Feelings of Worthlessness or Excessive Guilt: Those with depression regularly struggle with feelings of worthlessness or guilt over things that wouldn’t normally cause such emotions.

8. Psychomotor Agitation or Retardation: Some people may become restless or begin to move and speak slower than usual.

9. Physical Symptoms: Unexplained aches and pains — such as headaches, back pain or stomach issues — can also be associated with depression.

10. Suicidal Thoughts: In severe cases, depression can trigger thoughts of suicide or preoccupation with death.

Remember, these symptoms must persist for at least two weeks to be considered clinical depression. There are several types of depression, and some may have different symptoms. If you or someone you know is experiencing these signs, it’s important to reach out to a healthcare provider for help.

Diagnosis Depression

Depression, also known as major depressive disorder or clinical depression, is a common and serious mood disorder. It is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a disinterest in activities once found enjoyable. It affects one’s thoughts, feelings, behavior, and overall physical health. Depression is not just a case of temporary sadness or a lack of willpower, it is a real, chronic health condition.

Symptoms can vary but may include: a persistent feeling of sadness or emptiness, feelings of hopelessness, irritability, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, loss of interest in hobbies and activities, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, physical aches and pains, and thoughts of death or suicide.

The exact cause of depression isn’t known, but it is probably a combination of genetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychological factors. It can happen at any age, but often begins in adulthood. Depression is diagnosed more commonly in women than men, however, this may be due to men being more reluctant to seek help.

Depression is normally diagnosed by a healthcare professional who will ask about your symptoms, thoughts, feelings and behavior patterns. It may also involve a physical examination or laboratory tests to rule out other health conditions. Treatment normally involves psychotherapy (talking therapy), medications, or a combination of both. With proper treatment, most people with depression experience significant improvement and can return to their regular daily activities.

Treatment of Depression

Treating depression often involves a combination of strategies:

1. Psychotherapy: This is also known as talking therapy. Types include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and problem-solving therapy. Through these therapies, mental health professionals can help an individual learn tools to manage depression, from healthier thinking patterns to stress management.

2. Medication: Antidepressants are tools that can help alleviate the symptoms of depression. They work by balancing chemicals in your brain that affect mood and emotions.

3. Lifestyle changes: These can involve regular physical activity or exercise, proper diet, enough sleep, reducing stress, and avoiding alcohol and drugs.

4. Self-care practices: Mindfulness, relaxation techniques, and other self-care practices can also aid in managing depression symptoms.


5. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) or Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS): These are more advanced treatments usually reserved for severe cases of depression when traditional methods haven’t worked.

6. Support from family and friends: Support and understanding from loved ones can greatly aid people who are suffering from depression.

7. Treatment programs: Some people with severe depression might require hospitalization or residential treatment programs.

Please remember this is a general guide, and each person’s experience with depression may be different. Always seek advice from a healthcare provider who can guide you to the most appropriate treatment for your individual needs.

Medications commonly used for Depression

Sure, here are some commonly prescribed medications used to treat depression:

1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): These work by elevating the levels of serotonin in the brain, which helps elevate mood. Common SSRIs include Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertraline (Zoloft), and Citalopram (Celexa).

2. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): These affect and increase the levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Examples include Venlafaxine (Effexor) and Duloxetine (Cymbalta).

3. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): These can be very effective, but tend to cause more severe side effects and are therefore usually a backup option. Some examples are Amitriptyline (Elavil) and Imipramine (Tofranil).

4. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs): Because they can have serious side effects and can interact negatively with certain foods and medicines, they are most often used when other medications have not worked. Examples include Tranylcypromine (Parnate) and Phenelzine (Nardil).

5. Atypical Antidepressants: This group does not fit into the other classes. They have unique mechanisms of action that are not fully understood. Example includes Bupropion (Wellbutrin) and Mirtazapine (Remeron).

6. Antipsychotics: These are often used in conjunction with other antidepressants to treat severe or resistant depression. These include Aripiprazole (Abilify) and Quetiapine (Seroquel).

Remember that all medications can have side effects and should only be used under a doctor’s supervision. What works best will depend on the individual and the specific nature of their depression. It’s important that any treatment plan be reviewed regularly by a healthcare provider to ensure its continued efficiency and safety.

Prevention of Depression

Preventing depression can initially involve understanding its risk factors and taking steps to manage or eliminate them. However, keep in mind that, as with any medical condition, prevention isn’t foolproof and treatment may still be necessary. Here are some evidence-based strategies to prevent the onset of depression:

1. Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity can boost your mood, reduce stress and promote relaxation.

2. Healthy Diet: Eating a well-balanced diet can improve overall health and resilience. Some studies suggest that diets rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, healthy fats, and whole grains are associated with a reduced risk of depression.

3. Get Enough Sleep: A lack of sleep can exacerbate stress and anxiety, leading to depressive symptoms. Maintain a regular sleep schedule and aim for seven to nine hours per night.

4. Limit Alcohol and Avoid Drugs: These substances can increase vulnerability to depression and make it harder to treat if it does occur.

5. Social Support: Strong social networks can be protective against depression. Ensure to spend time with friends and family who can offer support.

6. Mindfulness and Stress Management Techniques: Practicing mindfulness meditation, yoga, or other stress-management techniques can help enhance feelings of well-being and combat the symptoms of depression.

7. Regular Check-Ups: Regular medical checkups can detect symptoms of depression early and allow for prompt treatment.

8. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and other forms of therapy can help you learn good coping skills and reduce depression risk.

9. Avoid Isolation: Loneliness can lead to depression, so make an effort to connect with others, involve in social activities, join clubs or organizations, or volunteer your time.

Lastly, maintaining a positive attitude, practicing self-care, and seeking professional help when needed can also help prevent depression. It’s crucial to remember the importance of individual variables such as genetics, personal history, and current circumstance in depression onset. Therefore, consult with a medical professional or mental health professional for more personalized prevention strategies.

FAQ’s about Depression

1. What is depression?
Depression is a common and serious mood disorder that affects how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working.

2. What are the symptoms of depression?
Symptoms can include persistent sadness, loss of interest in activities, feelings of hopelessness or pessimism, trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, fatigue or decreased energy, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide.

3. Are there different types of depression?
Yes, there are several types, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and postpartum depression.

4. What causes depression?
There is no single cause. It can be due to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

5. At what age does depression typically begin?
Depression can occur at any age, but often begins in adulthood. However, depression is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly.

6. How is depression diagnosed?
Depression is usually diagnosed by a healthcare provider or mental health professional. They often use screening tools and ask about your personal and family medical history, mood, feelings, behavior, and thoughts.

7. Can depression be treated?
Yes, depression can be treated. Typical treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. Sometimes, lifestyle changes can also be helpful.

8. Is depression hereditary?
Depression can run in families, but that doesn’t guarantee you’ll inherit it. It’s thought that multiple genes interacting with the environment may contribute to depression.

9. Does exercise help with depression?
Regular exercise can be an effective way to relieve some symptoms of depression. However, it’s not a replacement for medical treatment.

10. What should I do if I or someone I know is in a crisis or thinking of suicide?
In U.S., if you or someone you know is in crisis, call the toll-free National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255), available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Always reach out to a healthcare provider in such serious matters.

Useful links

Depression is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. It causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home.

Here are some useful links from academic journals about depression:


Please note, if you or someone you know is dealing with thoughts of suicide, it is important to seek help immediately. You should reach out to a mental health professional or trusted person in your life.

Complications of Depression

Depression is a complex mental health disorder that can have serious complications if it’s not properly managed. These complications can wreak havoc on both physical and mental health, and they can affect practically every area of someone’s life— from relationships to careers.

1. Physical Health Complications: Untreated depression can lead to a variety of physical health issues. These can include heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, it can lead to other complications like obesity, difficulty sleeping or sleep disorders, and chronic pain.

2. Mental Health Disorders: People with depression often have other mental health disorders. These might include anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and substance abuse problems.

3. Social and Relationship Problems: Depression can strain relationships with family members, friends, and coworkers. It can lead to social isolation, loneliness, and difficulties maintaining employment or performing well at work or school.

4. Self-Injury or Suicide: One of the most severe complications of depression is the risk of self-harm or suicide. Depression often leads to feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, which can result in thoughts of death or suicide.

5. Substance Use: Some people with depression may turn to alcohol or drugs to cope with their symptoms. But this can exacerbate symptoms of depression, making them more difficult to treat.

6. Reduced Quality of Life: Depression can make everyday activities feel overwhelming, thus greatly reducing a person’s quality of life. They might struggle to keep up with work, personal care, or even maintaining a clean living environment.

7. Other Complications: Some individuals with depression might also struggle with self-care, leading to poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and poor personal hygiene.

It’s also worth noting that the symptoms of depression can vary greatly from individual to individual, as can the severity of these symptoms. Therefore, the exact complications a person will experience can depend on a variety of factors, such as the severity of their depression, other existing health conditions, and their personal circumstances. It is vital to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment plans.

Home remedies of Depression

While it’s crucial to note that clinical depression should be handled by professionals like psychologists or psychiatrists, there are some natural remedies and lifestyle changes which can ease symptoms of mild depressive episodes. However, these should not be used as a substitute for professional mental health care.

1. Regular Physical Exercise: Regular physical activity can be as effective as antidepressants in some cases, helping to reduce symptoms of depression by releasing ‘feel good’ chemicals like endorphins in your brain.

2. Healthy Diet: Consuming a diet rich in lean protein, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can be beneficial. These foods are rich in essential nutrients which help support brain function and mood.

3. Enough Sleep: Poor sleep has been linked to depression. Try to create a regular sleep schedule and make your sleeping environment as comfortable as possible.

4. Mindfulness and Meditation: Mindfulness techniques and meditation can help reduce the symptoms of depression by focusing your mind on the present moment and reducing anxiety.

5. Avoid Alcohol and Caffeine: Both alcohol and caffeine can interfere with your mood and sleep patterns, potentially exacerbating symptoms of depression.

6. Social Connections: Reach out to family and friends for support and company. Isolation often amplifies feelings of depression.

7. Yoga and Breathing Exercises: These are great for reducing stress and improving moods, supplying you with tools to combat ongoing depressive thoughts.

8. Herbal Remedies: Certain herbal remedies like St. John’s wort have been suggested to help with symptoms of mild to moderate depression.

9. Journaling: Writing about your thoughts and feelings can provide an emotional release and serve as a therapeutic process.

10. Exposure to Sunlight: Getting outside and getting some sun can help regulate your natural mood-enhancing hormone, serotonin.

Should your depressive symptoms worsen or persist, it is recommended that you seek professional medical advice. Severe depression requires professional treatment and should not rely solely on home remedies.

Categorized in:

Mental Health,

Last Update: December 29, 2023