Recent Study Highlights the Benefits of Intraoperative Warming for Cesarean Deliveries

As healthcare continues to evolve, every effort is made to ensure both patient safety and comfort. In particular, obstetrics has seen an array of advancements aimed at optimizing outcomes for both mother and child. A new study published in the “Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing” underscores the significance of a practice that has been somewhat overlooked in cesarean section procedures: active warming of the patient. This article provides an in-depth look at the study’s findings, which have potential implications for perioperative care in obstetrics.

The study, titled “The Effects of Actively Warming the Patient on Maternal and Infant Well-Being in a Cesarean Section Operation,” authored by Dilek Talhaoğlu, Mürüvvet Başer, and Mahmut Tuncay Özgün, presents compelling evidence supporting the application of active warming techniques during cesarean sections (C-sections). The DOI for the study is 10.1016/j.jopan.2023.08.008, and it can be accessed in the January 2024 issue of the journal.


Cesarean sections, despite being a common surgical procedure, carry inherent risks and discomforts for both mother and newborn. Factors such as body temperature, APGAR score (an assessment of the newborn’s physical condition), and cortisol and blood glucose levels are critical indicators of well-being.

With the conventional practice focusing mainly on passive warming methods, such as non-electrified wool blankets and socks, the scope for further improvement in these parameters remained. This study aimed to fill that gap by conducting an experimental design that contrasted active warming methods against passive ones.


The research, conducted by a dedicated team from Osmaniye Korkut Ata University and Erciyes University in Turkey, involved 34 women undergoing elective cesarean sections, divided equally into control and intervention groups. The intervention group benefited from both active and passive warming, while the control group received only passive warming. Parameters examined included body temperature, APGAR scores, cortisol, blood glucose levels, and shivering conditions in the mother, as well as oxygen saturation during surgery.


The outcomes of the study were decisive. Babies born to mothers in the intervention group exhibited significantly higher body temperatures and first-minute APGAR scores compared to the control group. Furthermore, there was a noticeable decrease in maternal cortisol levels in the intervention group, although blood glucose levels did not demonstrate a significant difference between both groups.

Women in the intervention group had higher body temperatures at various intervals post-operation and exhibited better oxygen saturation at 30 minutes into the surgery. These findings emphatically suggest that active warming can contribute positively to both maternal and infant health during cesarean surgery.


This research paves the way for a potential reevaluation of standard warming practices during cesarean sections. By actively warming the patients, healthcare providers may optimize the surgical environment, thus impacting several crucial health indicators in a positive manner.

Such enhancements could lead to a reduction in the incidence of neonatal complications, improve the stability of maternal parameters during and after surgery, and advance the overall birthing experience. This study serves as a catalyst for discussions on protocol improvements and could influence guidelines and policies on a global scale.

Relevance and Future Research

The significance of this study extends beyond the focus on cesarean sections. As intraoperative warming becomes more recognized for its beneficial outcomes, it could impact a wide range of surgeries, particularly those involving anesthesia, where temperature regulation is a concern.

Future research is warranted to explore this topic further, potentially taking into account a larger sample size, different clinical settings, and examining long-term outcomes of actively warmed patients. Such studies could further substantiate the necessity for worldwide implementation of active warming as a standard practice.


As the authors of the study, Talhaoğlu, Başer, and Özgün, conclude, active warming should be considered as an advantageous practice in perioperative care for cesarean sections. The integration of such techniques in obstetric surgeries could serve as a standard for enhancing maternal and neonatal well-being, raising healthcare standards, and fostering a more comfortable and secure environment for mother and child.

This study has shed light on a simple yet profoundly beneficial practice that, if appropriately adopted, has the potential to transform experiences and outcomes in obstetric surgeries. With the ongoing goal of medical professionals being to provide the highest quality care to patients, the findings within this research are a reminder that sometimes it’s the simplest measures that make the most significant difference.


1. Cesarean Section Warming Techniques
2. Intraoperative Warming Benefits
3. Maternal and Newborn Well-being
4. Elective Cesarean Outcomes
5. Obstetric Perioperative Care


1. Talhaoğlu, Dilek, et al. “The Effects of Actively Warming the Patient on Maternal and Infant Well-Being in a Cesarean Section Operation.” Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, DOI: 10.1016/j.jopan.2023.08.008.
2. Sultan, P., et al. (2018). “The Role of Active Warming in Preoperative Management of Cesarean Deliveries: A Systematic Review.” Anesthesia & Analgesia, 127(3), 670-679.
3. Horn, E.P., et al. (2002). “Active warming during cesarean delivery.” Anesthesia & Analgesia, 94(2), 409-414.
4. Wood, C.L., et al. (2017). “Intra-operative warming in cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial.” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 216(1), 74.e1-74.e7.
5. Munday, J., et al. (2014). “Perioperative warming and maternal outcomes after cesarean section: A systematic review.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 121(6), 689-699.