Article DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.7264

In a groundbreaking study recently published in the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, researchers from King Khalid University and King Saud University in Saudi Arabia have highlighted the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, headaches, jaw pain, and swallowing dysfunction among young adults who stutter. This study, with a cross-sectional design carried out from October 3, 2021, to March 21, 2022, is one of the first to rigorously evaluate these associations in the Arab world.

Titled “Self-reported musculoskeletal pain, headache, jaw pain and swallowing dysfunction in a sample of young Saudi adults who stutter,” the research involved a cohort of 101 Arabic-speaking adults with varying severities of stuttering. The study’s aim was to elucidate the potential physical implications that accompany stuttering—a speech disorder characterized by frequent repetitions or prolonged sounds of syllables or words.

The Findings

Upon analysis, the study unveiled that a substantial percentage of those who stutter experience pain and discomfort that goes beyond the difficulties of speech. The subjects, 63 males and 38 females, with an overall mean age of 27 years, were grouped according to the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4.

According to the study’s results, 30.6% of the participants displayed moderate stuttering severity, with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain sites increasing alongside stuttering severity. The data showed that the most frequently reported pain locations were the lower back (31%), neck (26%), and shoulder (26%). Additionally, almost half of the participants reported experiencing frequent headaches, and approximately one-fifth had difficulty chewing hard food due to jaw pain. Swallowing difficulty, although less common, was still present in 9% of the individuals surveyed.

The detailed research conducted by Abdulaziz A. Almudhi from the Department of Medical Rehabilitation Sciences at King Khalid University and Hamayun H. Zafar from the Department of Rehabilitation Sciences at King Saud University suggests that chronic musculoskeletal pain of low intensity is a widespread issue among people who stutter, and this pain is positively correlated with the severity of their stuttering.


The link between stuttering and physical pain and discomfort adds a new dimension to the already complex narrative of stuttering. Stuttering has been primarily approached as a speech-language pathology, but these findings prompt healthcare professionals to consider a multidisciplinary approach to managing this condition. The study propels the scientific community to focus on holistic treatment plans that not only aim to manage stuttering itself but also to alleviate the associated musculoskeletal and physiological distress that can significantly impact the quality of life.


These findings have important clinical implications for physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and healthcare policy makers in Saudi Arabia and other countries. The identification of these physical issues in young adults who stutter is a major step toward developing better support systems and therapeutic interventions that address not just speech, but also the physical health of these individuals.

Medical professionals must be aware of these potential complications and comprehensively screen for pain and swallowing dysfunctions in their assessments of patients who stutter. Moreover, preventive strategies and early intervention programs must be established to help alleviate these associated physical difficulties.

Future Research

The authors of the study recommend further research with larger sample sizes that could explore the underlying mechanisms that connect stuttering with musculoskeletal issues. Additional studies are also necessary to determine the efficacy of integrative treatment approaches that encompass both speech therapy and physical rehabilitation.

The study stresses the need for longitudinal research to observe the long-term effects of stuttering on the physical well-being of these individuals and to evaluate the impact of therapeutic interventions over time.


1. Stuttering Pain Management
2. Speech Disorder Musculoskeletal Pain
3. Stuttering Headache Correlation
4. Jaw Pain Stuttering
5. Difficulty Swallowing Stuttering


1. Almudhi, Abdulaziz A., & Zafar, Hamayun H. (2024). Self-reported musculoskeletal pain, headache, jaw pain, and swallowing dysfunction in a sample of young Saudi adults who stutter. J Pak Med Assoc, 74(1), 32-37. DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.7264

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